This volume is devoted to the theme of social responsibility, social justice, and evaluation. It examines the evaluation-social justice interface and: * shares a variety of options and examples from different settings, * gives voice to populations whose voices are rarely heard, and * contributes to fulfilling the potential of the significant role evaluation can have in promoting social change. First discussing issues related to evaluation, social responsibility, social justice, and marginalized populations in general, it goes on to address issues concerning populations marginalized due to health, psychological, and physical difficulties; their cultural or ethnic/national status; or the specific geopolitical context of Israel. This is the 146th issue in the New Directions for Evaluation series from Jossey-Bass. It is an official publication of the American Evaluation Association.
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Number 146 Summer 2015 New Directions for Evaluation
Paul R. Brandon Editor-in-Chief
Helena Desivilya Syna
EVALUATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE IN COMPLEX SOCIOPOLITICAL CONTEXTS Barbara Rosenstein, Helena Desivilya Syna (eds.) New Directions for Evaluation, no. 146 Paul R. Brandon, Editor-in-Chief
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All issues are proposed by guest editors. For proposal submission guidelines, go to http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=48. Editorial correspondence should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief, Paul R. Brandon, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 1776 University Avenue, Castle Memorial Hall Rm 118, Honolulu, HI 96822-2463.
Cover photograph by ©iStock.com/Smithore
Paul R. Brandon
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
J. Bradley Cousins
University of Ottawa
Anna Ah Sam
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Barrington Research Group, Inc.
International Development Research Centre
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sierra Health Foundation
University of Southern Denmark
E. Jane Davidson
Real Evaluation Ltd.
Claremont Graduate University
University of Colorado Denver
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Northern Arizona University
George M. Harrison
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
George Mason University
University of Baltimore
University of Minnesota
University of Auckland
REL Solutions Inc.
Ben Gurion University of the Negev and Davidson Institute at the Weizmann Institute of Science
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Pennsylvania State University
University of British Columbia
Robin Lin Miller
Michigan State University
University of New Haven
Westat and the Rockville Institute
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
Mary Ann Scheirer
University of Toronto
Nick L. Smith
University of Toronto
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
New Directions for Evaluation, a quarterly sourcebook, is an official publication of the American Evaluation Association. The journal publishes works on all aspects of evaluation, with an emphasis on presenting timely and thoughtful reflections on leading-edge issues of evaluation theory, practice, methods, the profession, and the organizational, cultural, and societal context within which evaluation occurs. Each issue of the journal is devoted to a single topic, with contributions solicited, organized, reviewed, and edited by one or more guest editors.
The editor-in-chief is seeking proposals for journal issues from around the globe about topics new to the journal (although topics discussed in the past can be revisited). A diversity of perspectives and creative bridges between evaluation and other disciplines, as well as chapters reporting original empirical research on evaluation, are encouraged. A wide range of topics and substantive domains is appropriate for publication, including evaluative endeavors other than program evaluation; however, the proposed topic must be of interest to a broad evaluation audience.
Journal issues may take any of several forms. Typically they are presented as a series of related chapters, but they might also be presented as a debate; an account, with critique and commentary, of an exemplary evaluation; a feature-length article followed by brief critical commentaries; or perhaps another form proposed by guest editors.
Submitted proposals must follow the format found via the Association's website at http://www.eval.org/Publications/NDE.asp. Proposals are sent to members of the journal's Editorial Advisory Board and to relevant substantive experts for single-blind peer review. The process may result in acceptance, a recommendation to revise and resubmit, or rejection. The journal does not consider or publish unsolicited single manuscripts.
Before submitting proposals, all parties are asked to contact the editor-in-chief, who is committed to working constructively with potential guest editors to help them develop acceptable proposals. For additional information about the journal, see the “Statement of the Editor-in-Chief” in the Spring 2013 issue (No. 137).
Paul R. Brandon, Editor-in-Chief University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa College of Education 1776 University Avenue Castle Memorial Hall, Rm. 118 Honolulu, HI 968222463 e-mail: [email protected]
From the Editor-in-Chief
The Role of Evaluators in Promoting Social Justice
Brief Overview of the Articles
1: A Different Light on Normalization: Critical Theory and Responsive Evaluation Studying Social Justice in Participation Practices
From Theory to Practice: Setting
First Analysis and Reflection
Taking a Closer Look: Secondary Analysis Through the Lens of Foucault
2: A Purpose-Driven Action: The Ethical Aspect and Social Responsibility of Evaluation
3: Social Space and Field as Constructs for Evaluating Social Inclusion
Evaluating Social Exclusion/Inclusion as a “Field” Phenomenon
Evaluating a Program for an Excluded Population
Assessing Social Inclusion as an Expansion of the Life Space
4: Social Justice in Action: The Contribution of Evaluation to Employment Integration of a Vulnerable Population—The Case of College Graduates With Learning Disabilities
The Characteristics of the “Brave” New Job Market
The Interface of Social Justice and Evaluation
The Evaluation Model: Enhancing Social Justice for Vulnerable Social Groups—Social Justice in Action
Implementation of the Social Justice in Action Evaluation Model
Conclusions: The Role of Evaluation in Fostering Social Justice
5: Integrating Human Rights in Program Evaluation: Lessons From Law and Health Programs in Kenya
Incorporation of Human Rights Into the Evaluation
Challenges and Limitations
6: Promoting Social Justice Through a New Teacher Training Program for the Bedouin Population in the Negev: An Evaluation Case Study
The Bedouin Community in the Negev
The Status of Women in Bedouin Society
The New Program Design
The Evaluation Process and Contribution
Changes Made in the Program as a Response to Field Needs and to the Evaluation Recommendations
7: The Role of Evaluation in Affirmative Action–Type Programs
The Social and Political Contexts of the Study
The Two Case Studies
8: Evaluation in the Branco Weiss Institute: From Social Vision to Educational Practice
The Third Sector in Israel
Evaluation in the Third Sector
The Branco Weiss Institute in the Context of Israeli Society
The Evaluation Unit
Contributing to Second Order Change
An Example of the Model in Practice
9: Evaluation Under Occupation: The Role of Evaluators in Protecting and Promoting Social Justice and Equality in Conflict-Affected and Fragile Contexts (The Case of the Occupied Palestinian Territory)
Protecting and Promoting Social Justice and Equality
10: Evaluation of a Joint Israeli–Palestinian Project
Evaluation Helps Move Through a Crossroads
Responsiveness and Conceptualization
End User License Agreement
Mapping the Life Space
Mapping Inclusion as Change in the Life Space
Human Rights in Logic Model Development
A Map of the Area Included in the Program
Partner Developmental School Design
Undergraduate Arab Students at the Technion by Years
Arab Students by Gender
Dropout Rate Among Arab Students by Year
Distribution of Arab Students by Departments (Percentage)
Known and Unknown Knowledge Areas in the Johari Window
Example of an Individual Diagram of a Participant in the Program, in Comparison With the Mean End-of-the-Year Scores of the Participants and Comparison Group
Example of Findings of the Mean Scores in the Beginning and End of the School Year Among Program Participants and the Comparison Group Regarding Learning Habits
Map of the West Bank Illustrating Areas A, B, and C
Table of Contents
Evaluation is receiving considerable attention this year. Under the leadership of EvalPartners, the collaborative endeavor of professional evaluation associations and organizations around the world, 2015 has been declared the International Year of Evaluation. A formal United Nations resolution has acknowledged this status, and associations are symbolically passing an evaluation torch from conference to conference.
In recognition of the current heightened attention to evaluation internationally, two issues of the journal this year will be presented by guest editors and authors, mostly from outside of North America. The present issue is edited by Barbara Rosenstein, Chairperson of the Israeli Association for Program Evaluation, and Helena Desivilya Syna, Chair of the MA Program in Organizational Development and Consulting at the Max Stern Yezreel Valley College in Israel. It is the first issue in the journal's 37-year history to focus mostly on evaluation in the Middle East, as well as the first since 1990 to focus on issues of social justice.
Dr. Rosenstein and Dr. Desivilya Syna state in the Editors’ Notes that “the role of evaluation has expanded to include an almost ‘watchdog’ function of making sure that policy and programming protect the rights of all people and address issues affecting both marginalized and mainstream populations. Such a role is particularly important concerning programs and policies that do not refer to social justice explicitly.” The reader will find much in this issue that supports this assertion.
Paul R. Brandon Editor-in-Chief
Many significant changes have taken place in the theory and practice of evaluation in the last several decades. The issues of accountability and results-based programming were a major focus at the beginning of the 21st century, with random control trials taking center stage in the United States. Evaluation played a major role in contributing to these developments. However, the epistemology supporting the quantitative approach to evaluation was followed by concern for sustainability of “good” programs, greater use of mixed methods, and recognition of the complexity of both programs and evaluation (Bamberger & Vijayendra, 2010).
Alongside these changes in the field of evaluation, social scientists and evaluation practitioners became more aware of social justice and social responsibility due to socioeconomic and political transitions and their repercussions on social policies (Stuart, Grugulis, Tomlinson, Forde, & MacKenzie, 2013). These changes reflect widening gaps among social classes: the rich, the upper and lower middle classes, and the poor. The socioeconomic transformations are accompanied by vast reforms in the delivery of social services, which have swept the majority of the Western states. The most prominent change has been an application of market-type models to the provision of public services (Plantinga, de Ridder, & Corra, 2011). As a result of this transformation, the public sector has begun outsourcing social services to private and nongovernment organizations based on the premise that it would increase effectiveness and efficiency. Plantinga et al. cite research findings that seem to suggest that contracting out social services creates a quasi-market organizational environment, which in turn spurs competition and conflicting interests among various service providers. Such outcomes undermine equal opportunities and interfere with social justice. Thus, it is becoming increasingly necessary for those in positions of influence to join forces and take responsibility for promoting social justice. Evaluators are in a pivotal position to do so. Indeed, many of them are reemphasizing social justice and responsibility, as inspired by House's, Howe's, and Stake's frameworks (House & Howe, 1999; Stake, 2014). The current issue is on the forefront of this vanguard presenting a new direction: a pertinent and timely role of evaluation actively engaging social issues in the arena of increasing inequalities. We shed light on the evaluation–social justice interface in complex circumstances of conflict and social marginalization. Such an interface warrants special attention in a leading journal of the evaluation field.
We draw on Rawls's (1999) conceptualization of social justice, usually labeled “justice as fairness.” According to this scholar, social justice denotes ensuring and guarding equal access to civil freedoms, human rights, and opportunities, and protecting the least privileged members of society. Rawls's tenets concerning social justice refer to principles underlying the basic structures of society rather than principles that apply to institutions and associations in society or principles applying to international law. In this issue, we view social justice as a framework from which to address the evaluator's role in dealing with inequalities and power imbalance among social groups in society. Thus, in the field of evaluation, social responsibility is included in the concept of social justice.
In 2001, Mertens wrote: “the opportunity is upon us to engage in reciprocal learning and support, and to make a significant contribution to the amelioration of social and educational problems and the transformation of society to the end of greater justice and equality” (p. 373). Where are we now, almost 15 years after Mertens made her forecast? This issue of New Directions for Evaluation attempts to contribute to the fulfillment of that prophecy. Evaluators find themselves at the center of changing political agendas and in a position to influence these agendas by providing policy makers with evidence-based research to support and promote the merit and value of policy, programming, and project directions. We submit that the role of evaluation has expanded to include an almost “watchdog” function of making sure that policy and programming protect the rights of all people and address issues affecting both marginalized and mainstream populations. Such a role is particularly important concerning programs and policies that do not refer to social justice explicitly. Issues of inclusion and exclusion are implicit in all programming and we propose that it is the evaluator's role to ensure that these issues are placed firmly on the public agenda.
This issue reflects a substantive focus, honing in on this timely renewed role for evaluation from a variety of perspectives, stressing complex contexts that are characterized by social divisions among diverse social groups, as demonstrated in Israeli society. The main intricacies of such settings revolve around social divisions and intergroup tensions, features that accentuate the need to monitor social justice, especially as reflected in services provided to minorities and marginalized social groups.
The issue addresses these topics against the background of complex sociopolitical contexts attempting to answer the questions: How does the sociopolitical context foster or hinder more democratic and transformative evaluation approaches? And how does or can evaluation influence or have an impact on the sociopolitical context?
A range of evaluation approaches from responsive evaluation, democratic evaluation, social justice evaluation, as well as a variety of participatory forms of evaluation have proposed the social responsibility role of evaluation. These evaluations strive to give voice to the marginalized populations that are usually involved in a program or an intervention. Often, evaluators realize their increasing social responsibility through work in the field, reflect their understanding of the projects’ participants and staff within their specific contexts and present an overview of society and societal needs to those in a position to make changes. In some instances they attempt to advocate change actively. The current issue explores the following topics related to evaluation in the pursuit of social justice and responsibility:
The potential of evaluation to critique and transform the wider sociopolitical and socioeconomic context;
Theoretical foundations and methodological approaches of this role of evaluation; and
Possible ways whereby evaluation may promote social justice and responsibility for instance by implementing dialogical processes among stakeholders, especially in the context of asymmetric relationships, when strategic communication dominates and prevailing discourses silence certain voices.
In sum, the articles in this issue discuss (a) social justice methodologies in evaluation that use evaluation approaches which in and by themselves foster social justice; (b) evaluation use to promote social justice; and (c) evaluation of programs that emphasize social justice.
The articles in this issue concern various frequently marginalized social groups, exhibiting overt diversities as well as more hidden ones, such as national or ethnic minorities, women, and groups with special needs and disabilities. In many cases, the populations fit in several categories such as national minority women.
We have arranged the articles according to the population discussed in the article. Thus, the first two articles discuss issues related to evaluation, social responsibility, social justice, and marginalized populations in general. The third, fourth, and fifth articles address issues concerning populations marginalized due to health, psychological, and physical difficulties. The sixth, seventh, and eighth articles concern populations marginalized due to their cultural or ethnic/national status. And the final two articles confront issues involving the specific geopolitical context of the Israeli and Palestinian reality.
We begin with Woelders and Abma's discussion of an evaluation involving the marginalized population with disabilities in academia. The authors introduce Foucault's theory of normalization as a key to understanding social injustices and the role the evaluator can play in the process of using this theoretical framework. They discuss how a different perspective on “normal” can further inclusion. In the next article, Levin-Rozalis examines features of the evaluator's role that go beyond professional duties to conduct a good evaluation that meets professional standards, and answers these questions using Kant's categorical imperative, Ulrich's discussion on professionalism and systems, and Alexander's notion of a life worth living, among others. The third article addresses the issues of social space and social inclusion. Lapidot-Lefler, Friedman, Arieli, Haj, Sykes, and Kais demonstrate the need for new constructs to evaluate social inclusion and offer an innovative approach to programs involving disabled participants and their families. The article suggests that social space and field concepts can provide tools for generating “actionable” knowledge that can guide programs and practices aimed at inclusion. This article is followed by Desivilya Syna, Rottman, and Raz's illustration of a model used for promoting social justice in the increasingly competitive, insecure, and socially unjust field of employment. The proposed evaluation model draws on Abma and Widdershoven's (2008) typology concerning the relationship between evaluators and evaluees and is implemented in evaluation of a program attempting to integrate learning disabled college graduates in the labor market. In the fifth article, Gruskin, Waller, Safreed-Harmon, Ezer, Cohen, Gathumbi, and Kameri-Mbote present a mixed-methods model approach to assessing social justice aspects of evaluation in legalization of health programming. The authors show us a different setting, Kenya, demonstrating the global necessity to address the issues of social justice, responsibility in evaluation, and gender concerns with reference to vulnerable populations.
The six remaining articles provide case studies of the role of responsible evaluation in promoting social justice in a variety of settings in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. In the sixth article, Zamir and Abu Jaber discuss the ways in which evaluation pointed the Partner Development School program in a direction that included Bedouin women as teacher trainees. Through evaluation, cultural constraints that would have otherwise been ignored were incorporated into the program. Zoabi and Awad, in the seventh article, shine a new light on the role of evaluation in an affirmative action program within the framework of social justice and responsibility. Lustig, Ben Baruch-Koskas, Makhani-Belkin, and Hirsch present a dialog model of evaluation, focusing on a program with Ethiopian immigrants to Israel in the eighth article. The process promotes professional organizational discourse amongst several cycles, such as NGO commissioners, institute headquarters, the field practitioners, and the evaluation unit staff. In addition, the example illustrates how to build trust and partnership while turning organizational tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. Bitar addresses the challenges of conducting a responsible, justice-oriented evaluation within a conflict setting in the ninth article. The article begins with a short history of the political situation and then examines and illustrates the impact of the Israeli occupation on the field of evaluation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (oPt). More importantly, the article examines the role evaluators play in the oPt to promote social justice in the interventions that are taking place in the development arena and the challenges they face in so doing. The article concludes with the implications for and generalizability of the role of evaluators in promoting the social justice agenda in other conflict contexts. We conclude the issue with another discussion of the role of evaluation in a conflict setting. In the final article of the issue, Steinberg and Zamir tell the story of an Israeli–Palestinian partnership in constructing parallel narrative histories of the region and evaluation's contribution to this endeavor. This article opens a window revealing the challenging task of evaluating against the backdrop of complex, conflicting, and hostile interrelations.
It is important to mention that this issue of the journal is being prepared during the summer of 2014 at the height of the war in our region. These articles shine a ray of light into a seemingly dark intractable conflict. The discussion of narrative, challenges, hearing the voices of those who are rarely heard, and the possibility of working together adds a note of optimism at a generally pessimistic time.
Abma, T. A., & Widdershoven, G. A. M. (2008). Evaluation and/as social relation.
Bamberger, M., & Vijayendra, R. (2010).
Using mixed methods in monitoring and evaluation. Experiences from international development
. The World Bank Development Research Group Poverty and Inequality Team.
House, E. R., & Howe, K. R. (1999).
Values in evaluation and social research
. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mertens, D. M. (2001). Inclusivity and transformation: Evaluation in 2010.
American Journal of Evaluation
Plantinga, M., de Ridder, K., & Corra, A. (2011). Choosing whether to buy or make: The contracting out of employment reintegration services by Dutch municipalities.
Social Policy and Administration
Rawls, J. (1999).
A theory of justice
(rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Stake, R. E. (2014). Eisner's qualities and quality.
American Journal of Evaluation
Stuart, M., Grugulis, I., Tomlinson, J., Forde, C., & MacKenzie, R. (2013). Reflections on work and employment into the 21st century: Between equal rights, force decides.
Work, Employment and Society
Barbara RosensteinHelena Desivilya SynaEditors
is a founding member and current chairperson of the Israeli Association for Program Evaluation. She was on the first board of the International Organization for Cooperation in Evaluation (IOCE), has taught evaluation theory and ethics, and currently conducts evaluations of social enterprise and social change programs.
Helena Desivilya Syna
is a social/organizational psychologist and the current chair of the MA program in organizational development and consulting at the Max Stern Yezreel Valley College. Her areas of expertise, research, and publications revolve around social relations and social issues, especially management of social conflict, building partnerships, and intergroup collaborations.
Woelders, S., & Abma, T. (2015). A different light on normalization: Critical theory and responsive evaluation studying social justice in participation practices. In B. Rosenstein & H. Desivilya Syna (Eds.), Evaluation and social justice in complex sociopolitical contexts. New Directions for Evaluation, 146, 9–18.
Susan Woelders, Tineke Abma
Responsive evaluation provides guidelines to include various stakeholders in dialogue. However, a substantial theory to understand power asymmetries and inequalities is lacking. The purpose of this article is to consider which theoretical framework for societal critique can be helpful to evaluate practices in relation to social justice. These questions will be addressed using fragments from a responsive evaluation study on the involvement of people with an intellectual disability in public policy. Our study shows that Foucault's framework on normalization was helpful. It revealed that the engagement and striving for equality and social justice can turn out to be disciplining itself. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and the American Evaluation Association.
Social justice has been explicitly addressed as a concern in the evaluation literature (Greene, 2006; Mertens, 2009; Schwandt, 1997). Responsive evaluation is an approach that aims to enhance the mutual understanding between stakeholder groups and value-driven transformations (Abma, 2005; Abma & Widdershoven, 2011; Guba & Lincoln, 1989). Responsive evaluation takes into account the issues and voices of as many stakeholders as possible, as well as those who are less heard in policymaking. It is an interactive, reflexive process on the meanings and values of a practice with and among all groups whose interests are involved. This is stimulated by dialogue between the different stakeholder groups. Dialogue is a learning process oriented toward mutual understanding (versus a debate focused on strategic action). In dialogue, people meet each other as persons with a name and face (and not as parties in a debate).
In responsive evaluation, the evaluator should create a power balance between the various stakeholders, leveling power differentials among groups. The empowerment of marginalized groups is in some sense an extension of this (Baur & Abma, 2011; Mertens, 2009). To level out the influence of all stakeholders, most of the time it is necessary to support the weaker voices. In the absence of the evaluator's advocacy for minority group interests, majority elite views can dominate (House, 1993).
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