Marine Pollution: Current Status, Impacts, and Remedies -  - E-Book

Marine Pollution: Current Status, Impacts, and Remedies E-Book

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While oceans are vast, they represent a fragile resource that must be protected if we want to protect our livelihoods and our planet. Marine pollution has been a topic of concern for a long time, and it has recently attracted the attention of scientists, environmentalists, economists, politicians and journalists in mainstream media, .
Besides providing food, transportation routes and other resources, the oceans serve as a heat absorbing sink which offsets the extreme heating effects of climate change, but only to a limited degree. Pollution in marine environments such as the oceans, poses a threat to coastal communities by affecting the fauna and flora in the environment and the health of the nearby population. This has a disruptive effect on the health and economy of these communities.
Marine Pollution: Current Status, Impacts and Remedies emphasizes the limitations of marine resources that relevant environments provide. Readers will find chapters on methods to assess pollution as well as important information for identifying, measuring, and remediating various pollutants. The book also covers some known pollutants (heavy metals, organic pollutants, microplastics) and ways to manage these substances. Other issues covered in the book include problems caused by invasive species, and the ecological problems caused by pollutants which affect local fauna and flora.
This book will prove to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and policymakers, who are working in environmental science, marine conservation and allied fields.

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Table of Contents
Welcome
Table of Content
Title
BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD.
End User License Agreement (for non-institutional, personal use)
Usage Rules:
Disclaimer:
Limitation of Liability:
General:
FOREWORD
PREFACE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
List of Contributors
An Introduction to the Recent Perspectives of Marine Pollution
Abstract
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
REFERENCES
Sampling Pelagic Marine Organisms
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
SAMPLING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
BIODIVERSITY OF OCEAN ZONES
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Fish
A FINAL WORD ON GENETIC SAMPLING
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Macroelements and Microelements in Marine Ecosystems: An Overview
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
The Importance of Marine Life for Carbon and Oxygen Biogeochemical Cycles
ESSENTIALITY AND TOXICITY OF THE ELEMENTS
AQUATIC CHEMISTRY
pE X pH Diagrams
Types of Metallic Cations and their Tendencies to form Complexes
Complexation of Metallic Ions in Marine Environments
THE IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTS ON THE MOBILITY OF ELEMENTS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
BIOKINETIC ASPECTS INVOLVED IN THE BIOLOGICAL IN- TERACTION BETWEEN ELEMENTS AND LIVING ORGANISMS
EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, TIN, AND COPPER ON MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Tin and Copper
CONCLUSIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Sulfur, Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Nickel in Marine Ecosystems: Accumulation, Distribution, and Environmental Effects
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Sulfur
Arsenic
Accumulation and Distribution of Arsenic in the Marine Environment
Aluminum
Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury
Nickel
CONCLUSIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Pollution Dynamics of Organic Contaminants in Marine Ecosystems
Abstract
Introduction
Persistent organic pollutants
Pesticides
Microplastics
Crude oil
Detergents and surfactants
Pharmaceuticals
CONCLUSIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Monitoring of Organic Pollutants: PCBs in Marine Ecosystem
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
RELEASE OF PCBS INTO MARINE ECOSYSTEM
DISTRIBUTION AND BEHAVIOR OF PCBs
Biotic Movement
Isolation and Transformation of PCBs
Bio-Magnification of PCBs
Uptake of Organic Contaminants/PCBs by Organisms
FATE OF PCBS
Characteristics Determining the Fate of PCBs
Multiphase Chemicals
Long-lived/Persistent Chemicals
Difficult to Measure
Vulnerability of Higher Trophic Level Organisms towards PCBs
PCBS POLLUTION MONITORING
Bio-indicators
Critical Pathway Approach
Bio-Indicator Approach
Chemical Monitoring
Biological Monitoring
Techniques for Biological Monitoring
a. Bioaccumulation
b. Biochemical Changes/Alterations
c. Morphological and Behavior Changes
d. Population and Community Level Responses
e. Modeling in Bio-Monitoring
Application of Biological Monitoring
Biomarkers
Properties of Biomarkers
Isotopes
LIMITATIONS OF MONITORING TECHNIQUES
Limitations of Chemical Monitoring
CONCLUSIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
An Overview of Pollution Dynamics along the Pakistan Coast with Special Reference of Nutrient Pollution
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
AN OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION AND POLLUTANTS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
Pollution Hotspots along with Pollution Types
Radioactive Waste
Oil Pollution, Shipping, and Accidents
Thermal Pollution
Marine Debris
MAJOR POLLUTANTS
Persistent Organic Pollutants/Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/ Pesticides
Heavy Metals
Nutrients Dynamics in Marine Environment of Pakistan
Nutrient Pollution and Belonging Hazards
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Ecotoxicology of Heavy Metals in Marine Fish
Abstract
OCCURRENCE AND CHEMISTRY OF HEAVY METALS
BIOACCUMULATION MECHANISMS
TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS
Acute and Chronic Toxicity
Behavioral Effects
Histopathology Effects on Organs
Skin
Gill
Muscle
Liver
Gastrointestinal Tract
Kidney
Brain
Gonad
Biochemical and Physiological Changes
Carbohydrate
Lipid
Protein
Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress
Hematological Changes
RISK ASSESSMENT
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Effects of Microplastics in Marine Ecosystem
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
MICROPLASTICS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
MICROPLASTICS IN MARINE ORGANSIMS
In Zooplankton
In Benthic Invertebrates
In Fishes
In Turtles
In Seabirds
ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF MICROPLASTICS
Effects of Plastic Debris on Marine Biota
Effects of Microplastics on Marine Organism
Effects on Photosynthesis
Effects on Immunity, Reproduction and Regeneration
Effects on Feeding
Habitats Provider
Effects of Microplastics on the Distribution and Transportation of Pollutants
Impact Factors on Pollutants Sorption to Microplastics
Combined Pollution from Microplastics and Associated Pollutant
CONCLUSION AND FURTHER TRENDS
Conclusion
Future Work on the Management and Research of Microplastics
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Toxicity Evaluation in Flora and Fauna Exposed to Marine Pollution
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Categories of Major Marine Pollutants
MAJOR MARINE POLLUTANTS
Plastics
Key Sources of Plastics
Land-based Sources
Sea-based Sources
Exposure Routes
Bioaccumulation of Plastics in Marine Biota
Toxicological Impacts of Plastics related Chemicals on Marine Biota
Oil Spills
Processes of Oil Weathering
Evaporation
Dissolution
Dispersion
Emulsification
Sinking
Factors Influencing Oil Impacts
Seasonality
Life Style Factors
Health and Condition
Impacts of Oil Spills on Marine Life
Recovery from Oil Spills
IMPACTS OF POLLUTANTS ON MARINE FLORA
BIOMARKERS AS WARNING SIGNALS FOR TOXICITY EVA-LUATION
Fishes as Bio-Indicator in Marine Life
Role of Bioassay Studies to Assess Marine Pollution
CONCLUDING REMARKS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a Model System to Study Marine Toxicology
Abstract
Introduction
Embryonic Development of O. Melastigma
Whole Genome Sequencing of O. Melastigma
Wild-Type O. Melastigma Monitoring Different Pollutants
Heavy Metals Toxicity in Wild-type O. melastigma
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Toxicity in Wild-type O. Melastigma
Organic Pollutants Toxicity in Wild-type O. Melastigma
Transgenic O. melastigma Monitoring Different Pollutants
Heavy Metal Toxicity in Transgenic O. melastigma
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Toxicity in Transgenic O. melastigma
Organic Pollutants Toxicity in Transgenic O. melastigma
CONCLUDING REMARKS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Problems of Invasive Species: A Case Study from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, India
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
STATUS OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
INVASIVE SPECIES THREAT
MAJOR IMPACT OF THE MARINE INVASIVE SPECIES AND ITS STATUS
ERADICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Problems of Invasive Species
Abstract
WHAT IS AN INVASIVE SPECIES?
Causes of the Dispersal of Marine Organisms
Top Five Examples of Marine Invasive Species and the Problems Caused by Them
Green Crab (Carcinus maenas)
Killer Algae (Caulerpa taxifolia)
Sea Walnut (Mnemiopsis leidyi)
Veined Rapa Whelk (Rapana venosa)
Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)
OTHER MAJOR PROBLEMS OF INVASIVE SPECIES
Alteration of Biodiversity
Economic Impacts
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Disturbance and Biodiversity of Marine Protected Areas
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
ISLAND BIODIVERSITY AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
PRESENT STATUS ON THE PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY
ANY SOLUTIONS FOR FURTHER IMPROVEMENT
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Monitoring of Environmental Indicators and Bacterial Pathogens in the Muthupettai Mangrove Ecosystem, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Area
Selection of Sampling Station and Sample Collection
Estimation of Physico-chemical Parameters
Enumeration of the Microbiological Indicator and Bacterial Pathogens
Statistical Analysis
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Environmental Parameters
Temperature
Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
Electrical Conductivity (EC)
TSS, TDS, and TS
DO
Microbiological Pollution Indicator
Total Heterotrophic Bacteria
Total Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Total Enterococcus Bacteria
E. coli
Bacterial Pathogens
Total Vibrio Species
Total Salmonella Species
Total Shigella Species
Total Klebsiella Species
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Marine Microbial Mettle for Heavy Metal Bioremediation: A Perception
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Major Sources of Heavy Metals
Industrial Effluents
Sewage
Dredging and Reclamation Activities
Desalination Plants
Oil Pollution
Marine Microbial Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution
Factors Influencing Heavy Metal Bioremediation
Biotic Factors
Species and Tolerance Capacity
Biomass Concentration
Size and Volume of Biota
Abiotic Factors
pH
Ionic Strength
Temperature
Metal Speciation
Salinity and Hardness
Effect of Combined Metals
Effect of Matrix
Microorganisms from the Marine Environment and Heavy Metal Bioremediation
Heavy Metal Removal by Bacteria
Heavy Metal Removal by Fungi
Bioremediation of Combined Pollution by Heavy Metals and PAHs
Effect of PAHs on Heavy Metal Bioremediation
Effect of Heavy Metal on PAHs Bioremediation
CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Occurrence and Bioremediation in the Marine Environment
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Source of PAHs in Marine Environment
Transportation and Fates of PAHs in Marine Environment
Effect of PAHs on Marine Biota
Effect on Planktonic Organisms
Effect on Benthic Organisms
Effect of Marine PAHs Contamination on Human Health
Carcinogenicity
Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity
Teratogenicity
Biodegradation of PAHs
Bacterial Degradation of PAHs
Low Molecular Weight PAHs Degradation
High Molecular Weight PAHs Degradation
Fungal Degradation of PAHs
Degradation of PAHs by Non-Lignolytic Fungi
PAHs Degradation by Lignolytic Fungi
Recent Advancement in Molecular Techniques in Understanding Microbial Degradation of Pollutants
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Tackling Marin Pollution: Final Thoughts and Concluding Remarks
Abstract
SUMMARIZED VIEWPOINT
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Marine Ecology: Current and Future Developments
(Volume 1)
Marine Pollution: Current Status, Impacts and Remedies
Edited by
De-Sheng Pei & Muhammad Junaid
Research Center for Environment and Health,
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Chongqing,
China

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FOREWORD

This book, edited by De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid, emphasizes that the oceans are a vast but fragile resource that must be protected if we want to protect our livelihoods and our planet. Although marine pollution is a topic of concern for a long period of time, it has recently attracted the significant attention of scientific and non-scientific debate circles, including environmentalists, economists, and politicians. The chapters on methods to assess pollution provide important information for identifying, measuring, and remediating various pollutants, while the chapters on known pollutants and their management point out how widespread the problems are and how intense international effort is required to resolve the problems.

Besides providing food, transportation and lifestyle resources, the oceans serve as a vast sink to absorb increases in global heat, mitigating at least temporarily more extreme changes in global climate. But in doing so, oceans also present a threat to coastal communities by altering local weather patterns and disrupting local livelihoods with changes in acidity and temperature.

This book will prove to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and policymakers, who are working on the management and protection of the world’s valuable marine resources and environment.

Phyllis R. Strauss, Ph.D. Matthews Distinguished Professor Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA

PREFACE

There are increasing environmental concerns about the current status of the world’s oceans. The rapid development of industrial zones and growth of human population in coastal areas have led to exploitation of marine resources resulting in chemical pollution from industry, domestic wastewater intrusion, invasion of non-native species, toxic algal bloom, and microbial pathogens. On the other hand, earth’s oceans offer abundant food resources, easy shipping, and coastal living. In this book, the experts from different countries in Asia, Europe, and America give their overviews and opinions about the current status of marine pollution, environmental impacts, and possible remedies.

Introductory Chapter 1 highlights the overall theme of this book: the importance of oceans in the 21st century. This chapter orderly presents an overview of pollution dynamics including inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, metalloids), organic pollutants (POPs-persistent organic pollutants, PAHs-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and PCBs-polychlorinated biphenyls), microplastics, and algal blooms in the marine environment. The second section specifically introduces the negative impacts of marine pollution and assessment methods to highlight the toxicity of marine pollutants. The last section of Chapter 1 is an overview of various remedial techniques, such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, and the challenges related to marine pollution. Chapter 2 describes common sampling procedures for the most diverse and abundant marine organisms that comprise ecosystem components under the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish. In this framework, biodiversity is assessed based on the status of ecosystem components, including phytoplankton biomass and diversity, zooplankton biomass and diversity, fish abundance and distribution, as well as marine turtle, bird and mammal abundance and distribution.

Chapters 3 & 4 highlight the important reactions of metals and non-metals with inorganic and organic constituents in marine water and sediments. In addition to these reactions, Chapter 3 also covers biokinetic aspects of two major marine environmental problems: eutrophication and the release of organotin compounds and copper from antifouling paints used on ships’ hulls, as an example of the effects of uncontrolled introductions of metals and non-metals on marine ecosystems. Chapter 4 highlights natural and anthropogenic sources of metals and non-metals, as well as their toxicity and accumulation in different marine organisms. Chapter 5 discusses pollution dynamics of organic contaminants and associated impacts in marine ecosystems. These contaminants include persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl compounds, fluorotelomer alcohols, perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, fluorotelomer sulfonic acids, and fluorinated polymers. Apart from POPs, microplastics and accidental oil spills are also highlighted in terms of their growing concern in oceanic gyres. Chapter 6 explores monitoring of organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem, including fate, distribution, and behavior of PCBs, as well as uptake of organic contaminants/PCBs by marine organisms.

Chapter 7 describes pollution dynamics along the Pakistan coast with special reference of nutrient pollution. In this Chapter, the magnitude of pollution (organic and inorganic) in coastal environments of Pakistan is discussed including plastic pollution, and enrichment of macro-nutrients in coastal waters leading to the explosion in frequency of harmful algal blooms. Chapter 8 explores ecotoxicology of heavy metals in marine fish. The authors review the occurrence and chemistry of heavy metals in the marine environment, as well as the bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals in marine fish. Chapter 8 also summarizes the public health risks due to the consumption of heavy metals’ contaminated fish. Chapter 9 highlights the effects of microplastic on the marine ecosystem. Further, several aspects related to research gaps for the management of microplastic waste are proposed. Chapter 10 explores methods to measure toxicity in flora and fauna exposed to different categories of marine pollutants, their sources, various exposure routes, and associated toxicological impacts on marine organisms. Chapter 11 covers the topic of chemical toxicity screening by using marine medaka (O. melastigma) as a model system. This chapter provides the recent research progress in the toxicological impacts and responsive biomarker of O. melastigma caused by various marine pollutants, such as heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants.

Chapter 12 reviews the problems of invasive species in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, India. Chapter 13 highlights the problems of dispersal of invasive species through marine ecosystems with a special focus on the case study of five invasive species and associated problems. Chapter 14 describes the effects of the disturbing unique island biodiversity of marine protected areas linked with the environmental changes influenced by anthropogenic activities, overexploitation of resources, and the habitat loss due to developmental activities and natural change in climate. Chapter 15 presents information on monitoring environmental indicators and bacterial pathogens in aquaculture practices impacted the Muthupettai Mangrove Ecosystem, Tamil Nadu, India. This chapter, a research article instead of a review, reports on the vulnerability of the mangrove ecosystems after continuous discharges of untreated aquaculture effluents have caused water quality to deteriorate so far that physiochemical parameters and bacterial pathogens highly exceed WHO, EU, and CPCB standard permissible limits.

Chapter 16 highlights the vast potential of marine microbes (bacteria and fungi) for their application in bioremediation of heavy metals. This chapter also discusses the specific factors influencing heavy metal bioremediation including biotic and abiotic factors. Chapter 17 focuses on bioremediation of low and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment through bacterial and fungal strains (lignolytic fungi and non-lignolytic fungi). Further, recent advancements in applications of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies for in-depth investigation of microbial communities involved in PAHs remediation are summarized. Chapter 18 provides final thoughts and concluding remarks.

This book contains the latest progress in the theoretical background of marine pollutants, occurrence, distribution, risk assessment, and the bioremediation in the marine environment, which will be of specific interests for academic scientists, students, and government officials to develop background knowledge of marine pollution based multidisciplinary research.

De-Sheng Pei & Muhammad Junaid Research Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, China

DEDICATION

This book is in the memory of my mother, Ms. Jinhua Wang, who passed away on February 14, 2014. This book is dedicated to all the researchers around the globe, who are working effectively and finding novel ways to protect the environment.

De-Sheng Pei Research Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, China

I would like to dedicate this book to my father, Mr. Muhammad Yahya (Late, January 30, 1992) and my beloved mother, Ms. Najma Jalil.

Muhammad Junaid Research Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The editors sincerely thankful to all contributing authors, who worked hard to improve the quality of this book. Further, we sincerely thankful to Ms. Naima Hamid for professional help, and her efforts immensely improved the quality of this book.

The editors are grateful for the support from the CAS Team Project of the Belt and Road (to D.S.P), the Three Hundred Leading Talents in Scientific and Technological Innovation Program of Chongqing (No. CSTCCXLJRC201714), and the Program of China–Sri Lanka Joint Research and Demonstration Center for Water Technology and China–Sri Lanka Joint Center for Education and Research by Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

List of Contributors

Abida FarooqiDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad 45320, PakistanAkshai RajDepartment of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, IndiaAltaf Hussain NarejoCentre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, PakistanAnjana K. ValaDepartment of Life Sciences, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364 001, IndiaAraceli Verónica Flores Nardy RibeiroCoordenação de Licenciaturas – Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Avenida Vitória, 1729, CEP: 29.040-780, Vitória-ES, BrazilArnaud Victor dos SantosDepartamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula, Salvador-BA, BrazilAsmat S. SiddiquiCentre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, PakistanAyesha GulDepartment of Biosciences COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology Park Road, Islamabad, PakistanBharti P. DaveDepartment of Life Sciences, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364 001, India Department of Biosciences, School of Sciences, Indrashil University, Rajpur - Kadi - 382740, IndiaBhumi K. SachaniyaDepartment of Life Sciences, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364 001, IndiaBarbilina PamDepartment of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, IndiaChengjun SunMarine Ecology Center, the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, ChinaDaniel Carneiro FreitasDepartamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula, Salvador-BA, BrazilDe-Sheng PeiResearch Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, ChinaDeedar NabiInstitute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, PakistanDonat-P. HäderDepartment of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, GermanyDongdong SongGuandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, ChinaD.B.K.K. SabithDepartment of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, IndiaFenghua JiangMarine Ecology Center, the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, ChinaFakhar I. AbbassBioresource Research Centre Bazar road, Islamabad, PakistanHaresh Z. PanseriyaDepartment of Life Sciences, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364 001, India Department of Biosciences, School of Sciences, Indrashil Universit, Rajpur - Kadi - 382740, IndiaHaren B. GosaiDepartment of Life Sciences, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364 001, India Department of Biosciences, School of Sciences, Indrashil Universit, Rajpur - Kadi - 382740, IndiaJoselito Nardy RibeiroCentro de Ciências da Saúde – Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Avenida Maruípe, S/N, CEP: 29.042-751, Vitória-ES, BrazilJingxi LiMarine Ecology Center, the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, ChinaKanza NaseerInstitute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, PakistanLizhao ChenGuandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, ChinaLi ZhangGuandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, ChinaLourdes Cardoso de Souza NetaDepartamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula, Salvador-BA, BrazilMadson de Godoi PereiraDepartamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula, Salvador-BA, BrazilMazhar Iqbal ZafarDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad 45320, PakistanMehtabidah AliDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad 45320, PakistanMuhammad JunaidResearch Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, ChinaMuhammad ArshadInstitute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, PakistanMuhammad Arif AliDepartment of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, PakistanMuhammed A. GondalDepartment of Biosciences COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology Park Road, Islamabad, PakistanM. Ramiro PastorinhoCICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal Department of Biology, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, PortugalNaima HamidResearchCenterforEnvironmentandHealth, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, ChinaNayab KanwalCentre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, PakistanNirmaladevi D. ShrinithivihahshiniaEnvironmental Microbiology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Management, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024, Tamil Nadu, IndiaNoor U. SaherCentre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, PakistanPeng ZhangGuandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, ChinaP.M. MohanDepartment of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, IndiaRajendran VijiEnvironmental Microbiology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Management, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024, Tamil Nadu, IndiaRabeea ZafarInstitute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan Department of Home and Health Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, Sector H-8, Islamabad, 44000, PakistanRicardo Teles PaisCICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, PortugalRiffat Naseem MalikDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad 45320, PakistanShahbaz AhmadInstitute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, PakistanSen DuGuandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, ChinaThelma JeyasinghDepartment of Zoology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai-625009, Tamilnadu, IndiaWei CaoMarine Ecology Center, the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, ChinaYan-Ling ChenResearch Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, ChinaZaheer AhmedDepartment of Home and Health Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, Sector H-8, Islamabad, 44000, PakistanZahid IqbalDepartment of Pharmacology, Al-Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Isra University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

An Introduction to the Recent Perspectives of Marine Pollution

De-Sheng Pei1,*,Muhammad Junaid1,2,Naima Hamid1,2
1 Research Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Abstract

Marine ecosystem covers two-thirds of the earth’s surface, and is characterized by its rich biodiversity and endemism of marine life. However, like many other ecosystems, it has been subject to diverse anthropogenic pressures, such as climate change, pollution, and biodiversity losses. In the first part of the book, we discussed the pollution dynamics of the inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, metalloids) and organic pollutants including persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), microplastics, nutrients, and algal blooms in the marine environment. Marine pollutants can have a wide range of pollution sources that are able to cause deleterious effects on marine flora and fauna. The second section of the book specifically elucidates the toxicity assessment by using marine model organisms. It provides extensive new insight into screening biomarker genes combined with advanced gene editing applications. In the last section of the book, various remedial techniques, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation, were discussed whether it could be beneficial to deal with the challenges of marine pollution.

Keywords: Marine Ecosystem, Pollution Dynamics, Remedial Measures, Toxicity Assessment.
*Corresponding author De-Sheng Pei: Research Center for Environment and Health, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China; Tel/Fax: +86-23-65935812; E-mails: [email protected] and [email protected]

According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the marine pollution is defined as “the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, also hazardous to human health” (Williams, 1996). The driving factors for emissions of marine pollutants include infrastructure development, human settlements, anthropogenic interventions, resource utilization, agriculture

activities, industrialization, and tourism (Derraik, 2002). The prominent marine pollutants of major concern include inorganic elements, persistent organic pollutants, microplastics, radionuclides, and oil spills. Most of these pollutants are interlinked in terms of their sources, jeopardizing the marine environment, and ecological resources. However, the existing classification of marine pollutants needs to be redefined (Islam & Tanaka, 2004). Due to the marine fisheries and commercial exploitation of coasts, most of the coastal areas in the world have been severely affected by marine pollution. Therefore, control of marine pollution is critically important and immensely needed for the conservation of marine ecology and sustainable management of resources. In addition, there is a scientific knowledge gap about marine pollution, which is also a constraint for controlling marine pollution.

The problem of marine pollution is dated back to the history of human civilization due to the anthropogenic interventions (Islam & Tanaka, 2004). However, this issue failed to receive considerable attention until recently when the consequences of marine pollution reached a threshold level and resulted in adverse impacts on the ecosystem and climate change. Now, marine pollution and associated hazards have become major environmental concerns around the globe. Among marine pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are carbon-based legacy organic pollutants, which exhibit a high environmental persistence and toxicity (Tieyu et al., 2005). POPs have attained a considerable global attention due to their potentials for long-range transport, persistence behavior, lipophilic nature, bio-accumulation, and biomagnification in the ecosystems, as well as their pronounced adverse effects on the environment and human health (Harrad, 2009). POPs usually include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (FBRs), polyfluorinated sulfonamides (FSAs), and other industrial chemicals, such as unintentional by-products of many industrial processes, especially polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), commonly known as 'dioxins' (Tieyu et al., 2005). In 2001, the Stockholm Convention under the umbrella of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) enlisted the sources, behavior, fate, and effects of POPs. This Convention was enacted in 2004. In 2008, 180 parties had accredited the Stockholm Convention in order to cope with POPs mediated hazardous impacts on human health and the environment. Initially, the Convention had listed 12 POPs for eradication and named them as “dirty dozen” that included DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and toxaphene (Xu et al., 2013).

A comprehensive study reported the contamination of POPs (organochlorine compounds) in the coastal water samples collected from 30 beaches of 17 countries, and the highest concentration was found at the coasts of USA, followed by Western Europe and Japan; while the lowest levels of POPs were reported at the coasts of tropical Asia, Australia, and Southern Africa (Ogata et al., 2009). POPs also include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the priority class of organic pollutants, which are primarily emitted from incomplete combustion of petroleum products in automobiles, industries and also through the pyrolysis of organic materials. In the marine environment, several processes, such as deposition through the atmosphere, industrial sewage, transport (marine ships), oil spills, and terrestrial runoff, are the potential sources of PAHs (Hamid et al., 2016). POPs exhibit exceptionally long retention time in the living bodies, pass through different stages of the food chain, and result in biomagnification at higher trophic levels. Further, persistent compounds can be bio accumulated and bio concentrated at the low trophic levels (Hamid et al., 2016).

PCBs, organochlorines, organometallics, polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are compounds, which are usually present in elevated concentrations in the tissues of the exposed animals at higher trophic levels (Pérez-Carrera et al., 2007). Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration may be the consequences of biomagnification process along the food chain in the marine ecosystem. The vertebrates and invertebrates in the aquatic ecosystem absorb different pollutants that can cause acute and chronic toxicity after magnification (Islam & Tanaka, 2004). Although many studies are available on the levels of pollutants in the marine ecosystems and their consequences, the precise and conclusive review of those studies is still elusive, which has been summarized in this book. This issue of organic contamination in the marine pollution is alarming to the extent that the Scientific Committee of International Whaling Commission (IWC) devised and launched a comprehensive program “Pollution 2000+” to elucidate the cause-and-effect relationship in cetaceans (Helmerhorst et al., 1999). The objective of this program was to develop a predictive model that can link the concentration of the pollutants in the tissues with its effects at the population level. Pollution 2000+ specifically focused on PCBs as model organic pollutants to determined effects for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) pollution (Helmerhorst et al., 1999).

Inorganic components include inorganic nutritive ions such as phosphates and nitrates, sulfur, arsenic, aluminum, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, gases like carbon dioxide and metals. All of these inorganic ions are essential for maintaining ecological balance (Islam & Tanaka, 2004). Nevertheless, when these ions occur in higher concentrations, they affect the natural ecological harmony also affect the aquatic organisms. For example, Nitrogen and Phosphorous act as a stimulus to increase the algal production. If the biomass production remained increased, then the algal layer becomes thick that prevent the sunlight and oxygen to reach the lower part (Almeida et al., 2007). Hence, low level oxygen deteriorates the marine life mainly invertebrates such as mollusks, worms, crustaceans and fish. However, aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury represent the group of toxic metals that are hazardous for human health. It is worth mentioning that the concentrations of aluminum in marine organisms is of extreme importance because this element is neurotoxic to humans and it may be responsible for Alzheimer’s disease (Xu et al., 2013). Moreover, the increase in cadmium, sulphate, and nitrate concentrations with depth are due to the decomposition of organic matter and consequent release of both nutrients as well as cadmium (Fergusson, 1990). Elevated Cadmium ions are distributed and accumulated in marine organisms and caused kidney failure, bone diseases, infertility, and different types of tumors in humans (Craig & Jenkins, 2004).

Furthermore, some inorganic compounds are microelements such as organometallic compounds which are emitted from agriculture and industrial activities are exhibiting high toxic potentials for the marine ecosystem. The toxicity of such compounds depends on both the metal atom and the organic compound bound to the metal (Craig & Jenkins, 2004). The toxicity of metals (mercury, chromium, selenium, cobalt, molybdenum, vanadium, iron, rhodium, iridium, silicon, germanium, tin, tungsten, manganese, and platinum) bearing organic compounds is elucidated not only through the inductive and composition resonance with steric characteristics, but also by using polarizability (Almeida et al., 2007; Mantoura, 1981).

Organometallic compounds, such as methylmercury, butyl tin, phenyl tin, and diethyl lead, are predominantly presented in the marine ecosystem (Wong et al., 1982). These compounds enter the aquatic ecosystem from the shipyard cleaning activities and landfill leaching. Similarly, the organolead compounds are persistent in the marine environment, because they had been used as anti-knocking agents after 1920s for almost more than a half-century (Craig & Jenkins, 2004). Mercury is also abundantly distributed in the marine ecosystem due to the natural earth process and anthropogenic activities. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic organometallic compound, which is produced by marine microbes through using inorganic mercury. MeHg exhibited an augmented potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain at higher trophic levels (Almeida et al., 2007).

The 21st century has been termed as the plastic age because of the widespread use of plastics. Plastics are being abundantly consumed in the industries and households, which can be observed almost everywhere due to their specific characteristics, such as good malleability, low density, low cost, and durability. It was estimated that the global production of plastic reached 335 million tons in 2016 (Jambeck et al., 2015). According to the annals of UNEP for 2014, marine plastic pollution was listed as one of the ten alarming environmental problems that need an urgent and sustainable solution (UNEP, 2014). The distribution of marine plastic greatly influenced by the water currents in the sea, whereas they are more evenly distributed in the oceans with high density in specific regions (Browne et al., 2015). According to estimates, about 480-1279 tons of plastic debris entered the ocean annually (Jambeck et al., 2015). Plastics are usually non-degradable and can last several hundred to thousand years in the environment. Alarming concerns of plastics are raised because of their persistent nature and their potential to transport POPs into the marine environment (Ng & Obbard, 2006).

Microplastics (MP) are known as the small particles of plastic size less than 5 mm defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Jambeck et al., 2015). They enter into the marine environment from the direct sources such as industrial accidental spillages and usage or the release of microbeads used in cosmetics through wastewaters (Browne et al., 2015). MP is considered as a new emerging pollutant and concerned researchers have started to study their effects and risks in marine environment. MP pollution has been listed as the second major scientific problems in the field of environmental and ecological science in 2015. The plastic (including the MP) pollution of the marine environment was also considered as the major global environmental problems together with ocean acidification, de-oxygenation, ocean warming (Almeida et al., 2007).

Due to the ever-increasing pollution in the marine environment, many of the aquatic organisms have been recommended as suitable environmentally relevant models, which are used as the indicators of ecotoxicity research. Among these model organism, fish species are of particular importance. Fish is more sensitive to many toxicants, compared to other invertebrates. The presence of pollutants in the marine environment can be monitored directly in the environmental matrices or through analyzing them in the fish, such as tissues, body fluids, and liver (Sures, 2001). In fact, the response of biomarkers is relatively quick and they prove as an indicator or initial warning system for biological effects to predict the toxicity of environmental pollutants. For instance, cyp1a1 is a specific biomarker for organic aromatic chemical exposure, which can be estimated by determining the level of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of fish.

Among fish models, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are fresh water, while marine medaka (Oryzias melastigm) is an emerging marine model to study the ecotoxicology in the aquatic environment (Dodd et al., 2000; Wittbrodt et al., 2002). Further, the transgenic fish are also employed for toxicity screening, which offers more precise and advanced systems to unveil the mechanistic toxicity (Lele & Krone, 1996; Nebert et al., 2002). Similarly, there are different fluorescent protein reporter systems (e.g., GFP, RFP) that are capable of tracking pollutants by real-time visualization of fluorescence signals in living embryos and organisms (Sures, 2001). In addition, the toxicity of the organic chemical is also measured through quantifying the transcriptional levels of heat-shock proteins, which are activated via aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway usually together with cyp1a1. Toxicity of estrogen-like compounds can be quantified through assessing the expression levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), choriogenin H (ChgH), and choriogenin L (ChgL) (Sures, 2001).

Regarding the marine flora, seagrass is well known for its potential to interact and bioaccumulate with pollutants. The hazardous pollutants severely affected its growth (Cabaço et al., 2008; Gacia et al., 2003). Sometimes the turbidity of marine water increase due to the high amount of suspended particles, which cause growth difficulties for photosynthetic micro aquatic plant species and other benthic organisms that need larval settlements (Gallegos, 2001). Moreover, turbidity also increases the temperature of water, because the suspended particles tend to absorb more heat (Glynn, 1993). It is worthy to mention here that some of the host plants are not merely affected by turbidity, but also leave elevated stress on their associated epiphytes, such as microalgae and microphytobenthos. (Glynn, 1993). Some of the coastal areas and estuarial environment are also observed with high eutrophication episodes. Eutrophication can be defined as “the process by which water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients (such as phosphates), and the dissolved nutrients stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life”. Various pollutants, such as domestic sewage, detergents, industrial effluents, and agriculture run-off, cause eutrophication when they enter the marine environment (Edinger et al., 1998). Eutrophication can cause severe damage to the marine flora, e.g. the biodiversity of coral reefs reduced up to 60% due to the alarming levels of eutrophication caused by nutrients. (Edinger et al., 1998).

For the bioremediation of marine contaminated media, such as water, sediments, and subsurface materials, many techniques have been employed based on microorganisms (Bouwer & Zehnder, 1993). Microorganisms can extract energy from all the organic and inorganic pollutants through various pathways, therefore 80% of the microbial bioremediation studies employed bacterial strain to achieve high treatment efficiency. Further, the microbial remediation of heavy metals’ contamination has several benefits, such as environment-friendly process, cost-effective, self-reproducible, and bio-products reuse. In addition, the microorganisms are adaptable, therefore, they have intensively used for the treatment of inorganic and organic contamination (Biache et al., 2017). Microbial remediation is usually a long-term approach to marine pollution (Alvarez et al. 2017). In fact, microbial bioremediation of heavy metals and other compounds lead to their immobilization and solubilization in the media, which is a critical step for treatment of pollutants (Kuppusamy et al., 2017). Generally, oil or petroleum contaminated sites exhibit POPs (specifically PAHs) degrading microbial community to a large extent (Zafra et al., 2017). Many of the previous studies have reported for isolating various types of bacteria from the contaminated sediments, which have been involved in the degradation of PAHs, especially the low molecular weight PAHs, such as naphthalene and phenanthrene, which usually present in high concentrations. (Kuppusamy et al., 2017; Li et al., 2017).

For the bioremediation, the bioavailability of the target pollutant is the most critical and important criterion. Under certain circumstances, the adverse effects caused by heavy metals and PAHs in the marine environment rehabilitate by surfactants up to a smaller extent (Ron & Rosenberg, 2002). Surfactants can act as metal complexing agent, increase the hydrophobicity of the cell surface, and promote the transmembrane transport (Zafra et al., 2017). Microbial responses to pollutants through uptake, bioremediation, and tolerance vary with different organisms. Similarly, organisms use various strategies to cope with the stress caused by heavy metals and their responses may vary at genus as well as species level. For example, A. sydowii showed maximum tolerance to as among different species of marine-derived Aspergillus fungus, such as A. sydowii, A. niger, A. flavus, and A. candidus (K. et al., 2011; Vala, 2010; Vala & Dave, 2017). The freshwater microalgal species, C. reinhardtii, C. vulgaris, and C. miniata, can be used to remove the divalent heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Zn), whereas S. platensis and C. vulgaris can remove trivalent metals (Cr and Fe). C. vulgaris and C. miniata can remediate the hexavalent metals (Cr) (Suresh Kumar et al., 2015).

CONCLUSION

This book comprehensively highlighted almost entire aspects of the marine pollution, initiating from the current status, distribution, sources of legacy and emerging pollutants in various marine environmental and biological matrices from diverse spatial and temporal scenarios, then advancing with the direct or indirect impacts of marine pollution on the marine flora and fauna in terms of mechanistic toxicity via various exposure routes and associated pathways. The second last portion of this book especially provided useful insights about the monitoring of marine pollution using advance, efficient, and environmental friendly biological methods. The last section of this book focused more about indirect effects of marine pollution or problems of invasive species and challenges to the marine protected area, and most importantly this section also provided biological solutions and remedies for marine pollution. Considering the vast nature of this book, editors are hopeful that it will prove as a useful resource for students, researchers, and policymakers, who are working on management and protection of marine resources and environment. Hence, the precise and filtered knowledge about the current dynamics of pollution in the marine ecosystem, associated ecological losses, and possible remediation strategies is still elusive. The implementation of existing regulations to abate and control marine pollution is urgently needed. It is essential to devise more international agreements to address the problems related to marine pollution to achieve the targets of sustainable development. A policy framework is also required that include marine environment protection laws, source-based monitoring, control of marine pollutants, waste disposal, and management strategies. Importantly, the rational uses of plastic and microplastic materials should be promoted to control plastic waste in the marine environment. Forums should be established for public awareness about the hazardous impacts of marine pollution and introduce an innovative solution to reduce the number of pollutants entering the marine environment. Lastly, the cutting edge scientific research should continue to understand the scope and scale of marine pollution. Future studies may focus on the most urgent topics, such as devising the standard methods for precisely analyzing the emerging pollutants in environmental. These studies ultimately can assist to understand the global distribution of marine pollution, and are also useful to assess the long-term effects of pollutants on marine biodiversity and trophic transfer of pollutants along the food chain.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The editors are grateful for the support from the CAS Team Project of the Belt and Road (to D.S.P), the Three Hundred Leading Talents in Scientific and Technological Innovation Program of Chongqing (No. CSTCCXLJRC201714 to D.S.P), the Program of China–Sri Lanka Joint Research and Demonstration Center for Water Technology and China–Sri Lanka Joint Center for Education and Research by Chinese Academy of Sciences, China(to D.S.P), and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) for CAS-TWAS Scholarship (No. 2017A8018537001 to N.H).

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors confirm that this chapter contents have no conflict of interest.

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Sampling Pelagic Marine Organisms

Ricardo Teles Pais1,M. Ramiro Pastorinho1,2,3,*
1 CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
2 Department of Biology, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal
3 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal

Abstract

Marine life remains far less well documented than terrestrial biodiversity. The main reason resides in the vastness of the ocean. Ocean waters, with an average depth of ≈3,800 m, cover 71% of the world’s surface. The difficult access, the complexity of the logistics (any study below the top few meters of the ocean requires large means, specialized personnel, and equipment), and the high cost of research have determined the majority of studies being performed in the terrestrial environment. However, in recent times, this severe imbalance has started to reverse. This is mainly due to the implementation of supra-governmental cooperation programs. Due to human-driven ecosystems alteration, over-fishing, ocean acidification, and chemical pollution (together with other threats), multiple marine species are endangered, so this effort is more than ever relevant and eminently urgent. Recently, the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) has proposed, the development of an integrated framework for continued and systematic ocean observation. This framework is based on Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) aiming to provide a credible response to scientific and societal issues, a high feasibility for sustained observation, and cost-effectiveness. Ecosystem EOVs have been developed. In this framework, biodiversity will be assessed based on the status of ecosystem components, nominate phytoplankton biomass and diversity, zooplankton biomass and diversity, fish abundance and distribution (as well as marine turtle, bird and mammal abundance and distribution). Recommendations for each EOV, including what measurements are to be made, but up to this point those recommendations do not exist. This chapter will try to identify common sampling procedures for the most diverse and abundant marine organisms considered as ecosystem components under the EOVs, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish.

Keywords: Marine Environment, Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Fish.
*Corresponding author M. Ramiro Pastorinho: Department of Biology, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal; Tel: +351 234370350/768; Fax: +351 234372587; E-mail: [email protected]

INTRODUCTION

The most consensual agreed definition of biodiversity, “the variability amongliving organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”, can be found in article 2 of the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity (GBO, 2014). This binding agreement had the conservation of biodiversity at its core, and it makes clear that already by 1992 (when realities like global warming and climate change were just the concern of a few), biodiversity was recognizably facing accentuated alteration under the pressure of growing anthropogenic impact. Two and a half decades later, protection measures, either at species or ecosystems levels, are still infrequent. Moreover, a broad understanding of all of the components and functions of marine ecosystems as well as a thorough registry of marine biodiversity are lacking. Biological diversity has to be documented and understood before it can be totally preserved (Zampoukas et al., 2014).

Marine life remains far less well documented than terrestrial biodiversity. Considering the major taxa, current knowledge indicates that diversity is much greater in the sea as compared to freshwater or land. Thirty-two of the currently recognized 34 animal phyla occur in oceanic waters, being 16 exclusively marine. Other major animal phyla, including the cnidarians, sponges, as well as the non-metazoan brown (Phaeophyta) and red algae (Rhodophyta) are largely marine (Chapman, 2009