Practical Electronic Circuits - A. B. Lawal - E-Book

Practical Electronic Circuits E-Book

A B Lawal

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Beschreibung

This book Practical Electronic Circuits: A Strong Foundation for Creating Electronic Projects  is designed to provide skills and a hands-on practical experience for students of electronic engineering and computer science. It also provides a good foundation for anyone interested in learning how to create electronic projects.

Electronics curricula are densely packed in many engineering and computer science colleges. This book therefore is a great help because it treats each topic thoroughly. So it is a great companion.

The book will be of great help for your electronics education because it is filled with simple and moderately complex practical projects. Links to stores where you can get very cheap electronic parts to work with are also included.

You will also learn how to be safe in your workspace, and how to develop the courage you need to carry out any electronic project. A step by step approach is used to explain the process of carrying out an electronic project.

This book is also a great value for every electronics students undergoing technical training. It encourages them through providing useful technical advice needed in a highly practical environment, with a clearly defined problem so they do not get stuck while building even complex projects.

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Practical

Electronic Circuits

A Strong Foundation for

Creating Electronic Projects

By

A. B. Lawal

Copyright © 2019 by A. B. LawalAll rights reserved.

ISBN: 9788835341215

Published in the United States

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty

All information given in this book is based on my own research and does not constitute technical or financial advice. The author and publisher cannot be held responsible for the consequences of actions taken, or any consequences through inaction, as a direct or indirect result of the information in this book. All information is used at your own risk. Whilst all content is checked for accuracy, no information contained within this book or in any of its links is to be used without taking technical, professional and marketing advice first. Anyone seeking advice should consult an Independent Advisor. The author of this book is not liable or responsible for any other websites or services linked to or from it. It is forbidden to reproduce any part of this book in any form or medium. Reselling is prohibited.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface

About the Author

1. Fundamentals of Electronic Circuits

1.1 Power Supplies & Electronic Signals

1.1.1 Power Supply

1.1.2 Electronic Signal

1.2 Electricity: Charges & Current

1.2.1 Electric Charge

1.2.2 Electric Current

1.2.3 Current Drawn By Common Electronic Devices

1.3 Electric Voltage, Grounds & Power

1.3.1 Electric Voltage

1.3.2 Grounds

1.3.3 Electric Power

1.3.4 Electric Heat

1.4 Conductors, Resistors & Semiconductors

1.4.1 Conductors, Insulators & Resistivity

1.4.2 Electrical Resistance & Resistivity

1.4.3 Conductivity

1.4.4 Good Conductors, Poor Conductors & Semiconductors

1.4.5 Semiconductors

1.5 Resistor Symbols, Types & Color Codes

1.5.1 Active & Passive Components

1.5.2 Resistor Symbols

1.5.3 Ohm’s Law

1.5.4 Types of Resistors

1.5.5 Thermistor

1.5.6 Varistor Resistor

1.5.7 LDR (Light Dependent Resistors) or Photo Resistor

1.5.8 Surface Mount Resistor (SMD)

1.5.9 Standard Resistors

1.5.10 Resistor Tolerance

1.5.11 The E-Series

1.5.12 How to Read Resistor Color Codes

1.5.13 How to Read 4-Color Coded Resistors

1.5.14 Zero-Ohm Resistor

Practice Exercise 1: Reading Color Codes

1.5.15 How to Read 5-Color Coded Resistors

1.5.16 How to Read 5-Color Coded Resistors with Reliability Band

1.5.17 How to Read the Color Codes of Surface-Mount (SMD) Resistors

1.5.18 How to Read 6-Color Coded Resistors with TCR

1.5.19 How to Understand Resistor Power Ratings

Practice Exercise 2: Building a Current-Limiting Circuit for an LED

1.6 Resistor Networks: Series & Parallel Combinations

1.6.1 The Series Combination

1.6.2 The Parallel Combination

1.6.3 The Voltage Divider Circuit: How to Use Resistors to Tap Voltages

Practice Exercise 3: Building Resistor Networks & Divider Circuit

1.7 Open, Closed & Short Circuits

1.7.1 Difference between Open & Closed Circuits

1.7.2 Short Circuits & Dangers of Overloading

1.8 Electrostatic Charge Protection

1.8.1 How to Protect Electronic Components from Static Discharges

1.9 Electronic Switches

1.9.1 Categories of Switches

1.9.2 Types of Switches

Practice Exercise 4: Using DPDT Switch to Control Light & Alarm Circuits

1.10 Understanding Wires, Cables & Wire Gauges

1.10.1 Difference between Wire & Cable

1.10.2 Wire Gauges

1.10.3 Types of Cables Used in Electronics & Telecommunication

2. How to Set up A Modest Workshop for Yourself

2.1 Where You Can Set up A Modest Workshop

2.1.1 The Essential Ingredients of a Good Workshop

2.2 The Basic Hand Tools for Your Workshop

2.3 Basic Electronic Components for Your Workshop

3. Workshop Safety: How to Stay Safe

3.1 General Workshop Safety

3.2 Personal Workshop Safety

3.2.1 Soldering Safety

3.3 Safety from Unexpected High Voltages

4. More Helpful Resources

Conclusion

Bibliography

 

Preface

This book “Practical Electronic Circuits: A Strong Foundation for Creating Electronic Projects” is designed to provide skills and a hands-on practical experience for students of electronic engineering and computer science. It also provides a good foundation for anyone interested in learning how to create electronic projects.

Electronics curricula are densely packed in many engineering and computer science colleges. This book therefore is a great help because it treats each topic thoroughly. So it is a great companion.

The book will be of great help for your electronics education because it is filled with simple and moderately complex practical projects. Links to stores where you can get very cheap electronic parts to work with are also included.

You will also learn how to be safe in your workspace, and how to develop the courage you need to carry out any electronic project. A step by step approach is used to explain the process of carrying out an electronic project.

This book is also a great value for every electronics students undergoing technical training. It encourages them through providing useful technical advice needed in a highly practical environment, with a clearly defined problem so they do not get stuck while building even complex projects.

About the Author

A. B. Lawal is a control and instrumentation Engineer. He also has a master’s degree in computer science. He worked for a couple telecommunication companies for over 10 years before becoming a lecturer in a prestigious engineering college in the United States. He is currently involved in evaluation, revision, redesign, and expansion of electronic systems and technically related computer programs.

1. Fundamentals of Electronic Circuits

1.1 Power Supplies & Electronic Signals

In this chapter, I lay some important groundwork that you need to make sense of the rest of the book. I examine the bits and pieces that make up the most common types of electronic devices, and that make electronic circuits in general to work.

All electronic and electrical devices, from the simplest flashlight to the giant and complex control systems on a modern aircraft, all need one thing in common: power supply.

1.1.1 Power Supply

A power supply is a source of electricity, or more precisely, a source of electrons. Without power supply, an electronic device is all just a pile of inactive plastic, metal or silicon (among other things).

A few examples of power supplies are batteries, power adaptors for charging your mobile phones and laptop computers and so on. Fig. 1.1.1 shows a power supply built by assembling a few batteries.

However, a power supply itself can be built with electronic devices, such as shown in Fig. 1.1.2 and Fig. 1.1.3.

 

Fig. 1.1.1: 12V DC Battery Power Supply: Source: Superbrightleds.com

Fig. 1.1.2: A Laptop Charger. Source: waveform.com

 

Fig. 1.1.3: Power supply of a desktop computer. Source: avnet.com

 

Next, I take a look at the basic concept underlying all of electronic circuits: signals.

I’m not going to bore you with any complicated or tedious or physics concepts, but I want to warn you from the start.

In order to learn how electronic circuits work and get to a level where you can design and build your own electronic devices, you need to have at least a basic idea of what a signal is. So put on your thinking cap and get started.

Fig. 1.1.4 shows various symbols used for representing DC and AC power sources in electronic circuits. The positive terminal of a DC power supply is usually represented by “+” while the negative terminal is represented by “─‘’.

Fig. 1.1.4. Various symbols for circuit power supplies

As shown in Fig. 1.1.4, the + terminal of bi-polar junction transistor circuits is often represented by VCC, while the + terminal of FET and MOSFET circuits is often represented by VDD. We will look at FET (field effect transistor) and MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor) circuits later.

1.1.2 Electronic Signal

In the field of electronics, a signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to transmit data from one place to another.

DC (Direct Current) is the simplest form of signal because it travels in only one direction so it can be switched on or off. It this is the principle behind the working of the early telegraph.