Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs - Latest Laboratory, Pre-clinical, and Clinical Studies -  - E-Book

Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs - Latest Laboratory, Pre-clinical, and Clinical Studies E-Book

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Many herbs and spices, in addition to their culinary use for taste, contain chemical compounds which have medicinal uses. For this reason, herbs and spies have been used for treating various ailments since ancient times. Modern scientific methods have enabled researchers to isolate bioactive compounds from herbs and spices and perform chemical analyses, which can be used to develop medicines to treat different diseases. This book series is a compilation of current reviews on studies performed on herbs and spices. Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs is essential reading for medicinal chemists, herbalists and biomedical researchers interested in the science of natural herbs and spices that are common part of regional diets and folk medicine.

The first volume of this series features the following reviews:
1. Saffron: The Golden Spice
2. The Effect of Crocus sativous (Saffron) on Respiratory System, Traditional and Experimental Evidences
3. Nutraceutical Activities of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its Bioactive Constituent Curcumin
4. Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities of Turmeric and its Active Ingredient Curcumin, and Mechanism of Action
5. Strategies for Enhancement of Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Curcumin
6. Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota
7. Turmeric and Inflammatory Diseases: An Overview of Clinical Evidence
8. Pre-Clinical/Animal Studies Conducted on Turmeric and Curcumin and Their Formulations

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Table of Contents
BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD.
End User License Agreement (for non-institutional, personal use)
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Limitation of Liability:
General:
PREFACE
List of Contributors
Saffron: The Golden Spice
Abstract
BOTANY, TAXONOMY, AND DISTRIBUTION
CHEMISTRY
ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ETHNOMEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE
SAFFRON IN ISLAMIC TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (ITM) VERSUS MODERN MEDICINE
Temperament
Gastro-Intestinal Activity
Hepatoprotective Activity
Cardiovascular Activity
Respiratory Disorders
Ocular Disorders
Anti-Depressant Activity
Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Anti-Nociceptive Activities
Aphrodisiac Property
Protective Effects on Urogenital System Disorders
Oxytocic Activities
SAFFRON MECHANISM OF ACTION
TOXICITY AND ADVERSE EFFECTS
PHARMACOKINETIC OF SAFFRON CONSTITUENTS
ADULTERATION
CONTRAINDICATIONS
CONCLUDING REMARKS
ABBREVIATIONS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
The Effect of Crocus Sativous (Saffron) on the Respiratory System: Traditional and Experimental Evidence
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
CONSTITUENTS
Methods
THE EFFECT OF C. SATIVUS EXTRACT AND ITS CONSTITUENTS ON RESPIRATORY DISEASES BASED ON TRADITIONAL EVIDENCE
Therapeutic Effects of Saffron Described in Different Nations’ Traditional Medicines
The Effects of Saffron on Respiratory Diseases Described in Traditional Medicine
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Saffron Described in Traditional Medicine and their Relation with Saffron’s Effects on Respiratory Disorders
Toxicity and Side Effect of Saffron Described in Traditional Medicine
THE EFFECT OF C. SATIVUS EXTRACT AND ITS CONSTITUENTS ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS
In Vitro Studies
In Vivo Studies
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Nutraceutical Activities of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its Bioactive Constituent Curcumin
Abstract
DIGESTIVE STIMULANT ACTION
ANTI-ATHEROGENIC AND CARDIO PROTECTIVE EFFECT
PROTECTIVE EFFECT ON ERYTHROCYTE INTEGRITY
PREVENTION OF CHOLESTEROL GALLSTONES
ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS
ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY
Amelioration of Oxidative Stress in Diabetes
Antioxidant Effect in Diabetic Cataract and Experimentally Induced Senile Cataract
Hepatoprotective Effect Through Antioxidant Influence
Renal Protective Effect Through Antioxidant Influence
Pulmonary protective Through Antioxidant Effect
Neuroprotective Potential Through Antioxidant Effect
Effectiveness in Wound Healing Through Antioxidant Effect
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY
ANTIMUTAGENIC AND CANCER PREVENTIVE PROPERTY
SAFETY OF CONSUMPTION OF TURMERIC
EFFECTIVENESS OF COOKED TURMERIC
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
References
Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities of Turmeric and its Active Ingredient Curcumin, and Mechanism of Action
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Curcuminoids
Antibacterial Activity
Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Helicobacter pylori
Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus
Antibacterial Activity of Curcumin for some other Bacteria
Anticarcinogenic Activity
Gastric Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Lung Cancer
Head and Neck Cancer
Liver Cancer
Skin Carcinogenesis
Pancreatic Cancer
Colorectal Cancer
Breast Cancer
Antimetastatic Activity
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
Strategies for Enhancement of Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Curcumin
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
POLYMERIC NANOPARTICULATE SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVING BIOAVAILABILITY
Techniques for Curcumin Loaded Nanoparticle Formation
Sol Gel Technique
Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Technique
Ionic Gelation
Capillary Microdot Technique
Nanoprecipitation Method
EMULSIONS FOR CURCUMIN DELIVERY
Curcumin Loaded Emulsions
Optimized Curcumin Emulsion Formulations to Enhance Physicochemical Properties and Bioavailability
Surfactants/Co-Surfactants
Oil Phase
Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS)
Co-Delivery of Curcumin
LIPOSOMES FOR CURCUMIN DELIVERY
Preparation of Liposomes
Conventional Methods
Thin Film Hydration Method
Reverse-Phase Evaporation Method
Proliposome Method
Injection of a Phospholipid Solution into an Aqueous Phase
Detergent Dialysis
Supporting Techniques
Novel Methods
Microfluidic Methods
Other Methods
Categorization of Liposomes
Size
Lamellarity
Surface Charge
Circulation In Vivo
Applications
Curcumin Encapsulated Liposomes
Aqueous Solubility and Bioavailability
Stability
Sustained Release
Skin Permeation
Cellular Uptake
Cytotoxic/Anticancer/Antitumor Properties
Biodistribution and Targeted Delivery of Curcumin
Effects Against Other Diseases
CURCUMIN COCRYSTALS TO IMPROVE SOLUBILITY
Overview of Cocrystals
Methods of Preparation of Cocrystals
Solution Methods
Grinding Methods
Cocrystals of Curcumin
CURCUMIN DERIVATIVES FOR ENHANCING BIOAVAILABILITY
CONCLUDING REMARKS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota
Abstract
TURMERIC
GUT MICROBIOTA
Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiota in Disease
Gut Microbiota During Lifestage
Homeostatic Function
Gut Dysbiosis
Life Style and Dietary Effect on Gut Microbiota
Polyphenols
Polyphenols and their Biotransformation in the Gut
Effects of Dietary Polyphenols on Modulation of Microbiota
EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN ON GUT MICROBIOTA
EFFECTS OF GUT MICROBIOTA ON CURCUMIN
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVE
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Turmeric and Inflammatory Diseases: An Overview of Clinical Evidence
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
CLINICAL STUDIES OF TURMERIC AND CURCUMIN IN INFLAMMATORY DISEASES
Gastrointestinal Diseases
IBD
IBS
Joint Disorders
Osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Renal Diseases
Diseases of Oral Cavity
Oral Lichen Planus
Periodontitis and Gingivitis
Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis
Dermatological Disorders
Psoriasis
Radiation-Induced Dermatitis
Respiratory Diseases
Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma
Respiratory Complications of Sulfur Mustard Intoxication
CONCLUDING REMARKS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Pre-Clinical/Animal Studies Conducted on Turmeric and Curcumin and Their Formulations
Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION
Chemical Constituents of Turmeric
Curcumin
Bioavailability of Curcumin
Safety of Turmeric
Drug Interactions or Reactions
2. PRE-CLINICAL/ANIMAL STUDIES CONDUCTED ON TURMERIC AND ITS CONSTITUENTS
Curcumin in Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes
Anti-inflammatory Activity
Anti-Catabolic/Anabolic Effects
Effect on Cell Survival and Anti-Apoptotic Potency
Curcumin and Immune Function
Ulcerative Colitis
Pancreatitis
Cancer Chemoprevention
Anti-oxidant Effect
Alzheimer’s Disease
Curcumin Effects on Lipid Metabolism
Stress Response Modulating Effects of Curcuminoids
Cardiovascular Diseases
Allergy, Asthma and Bronchitis
Chronic Kidney Diseases
Skin Diseases
Liver Diseases
Antimicrobial Activity
Insecticidal and Larvicidal Activity
Radioprotector
Antidepressant Activity
Anti-aging Activity
Wound Healing
Turmeric in Urinary Disorders
Dyspepsia and Gastric Ulcer
Anticoagulant Activity
Anti-fertility Activity
Analgesic Action
Anthelmintic Activity
Ophthalmic Care
Oral Health
Anti-diabetic Potential
3. PRE-CLINICAL/ANIMAL STUDIES CONDUCTED ON TURMERIC BASED FORMULATIONS
Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Curcumin Nanoparticles as Anti-Tubercular Agent
Turmeric Supplements as Anti-Arthritic Agent
Curcumin Formulation as Anti-oxidant /Oxidative Stress
Anti-Microbial Activity
Anti-Cancer Activity
Absorption of Curcuminoids from Formulated Turmeric Extracts
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs
Latest Laboratory, Pre-clinical, and Clinical Studies
(Volume 1) 
Edited by
Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
M. Iqbal Choudhary & Sammer Yousuf
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

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PREFACE

Herbs and spices have been used by humans since centuries. Apart from their culinary, recreational, and aromatic values, many of them have been used for medicinal purposes. Spice trades have played an important role in the spread of religions, political influences and colonization. Culinary herbs and spices are integral part of various traditional systems of medicine and cultural practices, including ancient Egyptian, Chinese, Ayurveda, and Greeco-Arab systems. Many of them are used in indigenous medicines and home remedies.

Ethnobotanic uses of spices, including anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, promoters of cardiovascular health, anti-aging, pain relieving, and aphrodisiac are very well known. More recently, a lot of scientific work has been conducted to validate the ethnobotanic uses of spices, as well as to identify their new uses. Mechanism of actions of many secondary metabolites, obtained from spices and culinary herbs, have also been deciphered in the recent scientific literature. With the growing interest in natural products, spices have received major scientific and commercial interest. Their dietary origin and safety profile make them especially attractive for therapeutic and nutraceutical development. Global interest in spices in health and economy are thus driving huge scientific R&D all over the world.

The book series entitled, “Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs - Latest Laboratory, Pre-Clinical, and Clinical Studies” is an attempt to provide the much needed comprehensive literature reviews and critical analysis of extensive research work currently being conducted on common spices, and herbs. Carefully chosen articles in the first volume of the book series are focused on two globally common spices, saffron and turmeric, and their key constituents. Eight scholarly written articles by leading experts, encompass key research and development studies on these two spices, including ethnobotanic uses, and pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Emami et al., have contributed a comprehensive review on ethnobotanic and scientific studies on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents. The chapter written by Boskabady et al., focuses on the effect of saffron on respiratory diseases, along with phytochemistry and clinical evidence.

Turmeric has long been used for anti-inflammatory effects in various traditional systems of medicine. Krishnapura Srinivasan has written an excellent review of nutraceutical and therapeutic properties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). On the same theme, Singh et al., have focused on the recent work on anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties of turmeric and its most important constituent, curcumin, one of the most studied natural products. Karunaratne et al., have contributed a chapter on various strategies for enhancement of bioavailability and bioactivity of curcumin in pre-clinical and clinical trials. The review by Wissam Zam is focused on the effect of curcumin on the diversity of gut microbiota, and related diseases. Farzaei et al., have written a comprehensive review on the clinical studies on turmeric and its key constituent curcumin in anti-inflammatory diseases. Last but not least, Goyal et al., have provided an excellent overview of pre-clinical and clinical studies on turmeric and curcumin, with reference to a broad range of diseases.

The above-cited reviews cover over 960 references for scientific studies on these two key spices. This illustrates the overwhelming scientific and general interest in the field and firmly establishes the need for a book series which provides state-of-the-art reviews to the readers.

We are most grateful to all contributors for their excellent reviews and critical analysis of the recent literature, and for timely submissions of their chapters. We would like to express our gratitude to the excellent coordination of Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar (Manager Publications), Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications), and the entire production team of Bentham Science Publishers for the timely completion and release of the first volume of this important book series. We sincerely hope that this new book series on the most important dietary and medicinal natural products will contribute to a better understanding of the subject and contribute towards further research and development in this field.

Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS Kings College University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
Prof. Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary&Dr. Sammer Yousuf H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Pakistan

List of Contributors

Ajay Kumar MauryaDepartment of Food Technology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur-208024, IndiaDipti RaiDepartment of Food Technology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur-208024, IndiaD. Nedra KarunaratneDepartment of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri LankaDev Bukhsh SinghDepartment of Biotechnology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur-208024, IndiaDisha AroraDepartment of Pharmacognosy, MM School of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur-Ambala-134007, IndiaGeethi K. PamunuwaDepartment of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Sri LankaIrosha H. V. NicholasDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Ratnapura, Sri LankaIsuru R. AriyarathnaDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USAKrishnapura SrinivasanDepartment of Biochemistry, CSIR – Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore - 570020, IndiaMaryam AkaberiDepartment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranMohammad Hosein FarzaeiPharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranMohammad Hossein BoskabadyNeurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranMohammad Sadegh AmiriDepartment of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IranRoodabeh BahramsoltaniDepartment of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PhytoPharmacology Interest Group (PPIG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, IranRoja RahimiDepartment of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PhytoPharmacology Interest Group (PPIG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, IranRupesh K. GautamDepartment of Pharmacology, MM School of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur-Ambala-134007, IndiaSaeideh SaadatNeurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranSamaneh SoleymaniDepartment of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PhytoPharmacology Interest Group (PPIG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, IranSeyed Ahmad EmamiDepartment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranSwapnil GoyalB. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur University, Mandsaur (M.P.)-458001, IndiaWissam ZamDepartment of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Andalus University for Medical Sciences, Tartous, Syrian Arab RepublicVahideh GhoraniNeurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranZahra GholamnezhadNeurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IranZahra BoghratiDepartment of Traditional Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Saffron: The Golden Spice

Maryam Akaberi1,Zahra Boghrati2,Mohammad Sadegh Amiri3,Seyed Ahmad Emami1,2,*
1 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Saffron, as one of the most expensive spices in the world, is obtained from the stigma of Crocus sativus. Crocus sativus L. belongs to the Iridaceae family, and has been widely used as an herbal medicine, spice, food coloring, and a flavoring agent since ancient times. Saffron is one of the most famous plants cultivated in Iran, and this country now accounts for approximately 90% of the world production of saffron. Saffron has a long history in Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM). It has been used for the treatment of several diseases such as urogenital, ocular, and respiratory disorders. Moreover, it has oxytocic, anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. There are several studies on pharmacological activities of saffron in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials which not only confirm the application of saffron in traditional medicine, but also introduce some new medicinal aspects. In this chapter, we aim to present a comprehensive review on traditional and ethnomedicinal uses of saffron in different systems of traditional medicine, especially ITM. Then, we will discuss pharmacological activities reported for saffron in modern medicine as in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trial studies. Finally, we will compare the properties reported for saffron in traditional medicine with the activities in modern medicine to reveal the potential of this valuable herb for treatment of various diseases.

Keywords:Crocus sativus, Iridaceae, Islamic Traditional Medicine, Saffron.
*Corresponding author Seyed Ahmad Emami: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Tel: +985131801267; Fax: +985138823251; E-mail: [email protected]