The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel by American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald. Set in the Jazz Age on Long Island, the novel depicts narrator Nick Carraway's interactions with mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and Gatsby's obsession to reunite with his former lover, Daisy Buchanan. The novel was inspired by a youthful romance Fitzgerald had with a socialite, and by parties he attended on Long Island's North Shore in 1922. Following a move to the French Riviera, he completed a rough draft in 1924. After submitting the draft to editor Maxwell Perkins, the editor persuaded Fitzgerald to revise the work over the following winter. Despite being happy with the content of the text after revision, Fitzgerald was ambivalent about the book's title and considered a variety of alternatives. The final title that he was documented to have desired was Under the Red, White, and Blue. Fitzgerald was, however, happy with painter Francis Cugat's final cover design. After its publication by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews from literary critics who believed that it did not hold up to Fitzgerald's previous writing and thus signaled the end of the author's literary achievements. As such, Gatsby sold poorly, and although Fitzgerald believed that negative criticisms of the novel did not interpret his work correctly, when the author died in 1940 he believed himself to be a failure and his work forgotten. However, during World War II the novel faced a critical and scholarly re-examination, and it soon became a core part of most American high school curricula and a focus of American popular culture. Numerous stage and film adaptations followed in the subsequent decades. Gatsby continues to attract popular and scholarly attention. The novel was most recently adapted to film in 2013 by director Baz Luhrmann, while modern scholars emphasize the novel's treatment of social class, inherited wealth compared to those who are self-made, race, environmentalism, and its cynical attitude towards the American dream. As with other works by Fitzgerald, criticisms include allegations of antisemitism. The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary masterwork and a contender for the title of the Great American Novel.
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