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A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republicoffers a comparative approach to examining ancient Greek and Romanparticipatory communities. * Explores various aspects of participatory communities throughpairs of chapters--one Greek, one Roman--to highlightcomparisons between cultures * Examines the types of relationships that sustainedparticipatory communities, the challenges they faced, and how theyresponded * Sheds new light on participatory contexts using diversemethodological approaches * Brings an international array of scholars into dialoguewith each other

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Table of Contents

Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World

Title Page

Copyright

Notes on Contributors

Abbreviations

Authors and Works

Journals

Introduction

References

Chapter 1: Reading the Past (On Comparison)

References

Further Reading

Part I: The Emergence of Participatory Communities

Chapter 2: Why Greek Democracy? Its Emergence and Nature in Context

1 Introduction, Questions, Sources

2 Foundations and Early Stages: The Eighth and Early Seventh Centuries

3 From Civil Strife to Civic Integration: The Formalization of Institutions in the Late Seventh and Sixth Centuries

4 Sparta's “Great Rhetra,” the Sovereignty of the

Dēmos

, and the Restoration of

Eunomia

5 Solon's Reforms in Athens, the Restoration of

Eunomia

, and the Institutionalization of Civic Responsibility

6

Isonomia

and the Integration of the Athenian

Polis

in the Late Sixth Century

7

Eunomia

,

Isonomia

, and Democracy

8 The Emergence of Fully Participatory Democracy in Mid-Fifth-Century Athens

9 Participatory Democracy at Its Height

10 Greek Democracy and Roman Republicanism: Elements of a Comparison

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3: Why Roman Republicanism? Its Emergence and Nature in Context

1 Introduction and Sources

2 Urbanization, State Formation and Aristocratic Clans, c.900–500

BCE

3 Kingship in Rome

4 Foundation of the Republic, c.509

BCE

5 Developments in Roman Republicanism, c.500–300

BCE

: A Response to Internal and External Pressures

6

Nobilitas

, Republicanism, and the Conquest of Italy and Sicily, c.300–241

BCE

7 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Part II: Constructing a Past

Chapter 4: Autochthony and Identity in Greek Myth

1 Introduction

2 The Land

3 The Sea

4 Plato and the Construction of the Past

5 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 5: Agriculture and Identity in Roman Myth

1 Introduction

2 Ideology and Agrarian Writing: The Scholarship

3 The Cincinnatus Story and the Roman Meal

4 The Context and Structure of the Cincinnatus Story

5 Topography:

Rus et Urbs

6 Farming, Food Production, and Economics

7 Farming, Authority, and Age

8 How the Motifs and Values of Part I Affect the Interpretation of Part II

9 The Roman Meal as an Expression of Roman Values

10 Conclusion

Notes

References

Further Reading

Part III:

Dēmokratia

and

Res Publica

Chapter 6: Liberty, Equality, and Authority: A Political Discourse in Greek Participatory Communities

1 Authority in Greek Communities before State Formation

2 The Authority of Statute Law in Archaic Greece

3 Democratic Citizen Agency as a Performance of Freedom and Equality

4 Freedom and the Autonomy of Greek States

5 From Greece to Rome

References

Further Reading

Chapter 7: Liberty, Equality, and Authority: A Political Discourse in the Later Roman Republic

1 Liberty

2 Equality

3 Authority

4 Concluding Reflections

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Part IV: Institutions

Chapter 8: The Congruence of Power: Ruling and Being Ruled in Greek Participatory Communities

1 The Development of the Greeks' Institutions

2 The Body of Participants

3 Making Decisions

4 Implementing Decisions

5 Justice

6 Religion

7 Smaller and Larger Entities

8 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 9: The Incongruence of Power: The Roman Constitution in Theory and Practice

1 From Monarchy to

Res Publica

2 The “Struggle of the Orders”

3 Institutions in the “Classic” Roman Republic

4 Popular Participation

5 Religion in the Roman Republic

6 Justice and Law Courts

7 Power and Authority in the Roman Republic

8 The Institutional Context of Rome's Expansion

9 The End of the Roman Republic

References

Further Reading

Part V: Law

Chapter 10: Tyranny or the Rule of Law? Democratic Participation in Legal Institutions in Athens

1 Introduction

2 Legal and Judicial Functions: Lawmaking, Litigation, Judgment

3 Legal and Judicial Functions: Prosecution, Self-Help, Accountability

4 Citizenship and Participation

References

Further Reading

Chapter 11: The Evolution of Law and Legal Procedures in the Roman Participatory Context

1 Introduction

2 Beginnings

3 Effects of Expansion on Law and Legal Procedure

4 Legal Process, Formal Legal Structures, and Informal Mechanisms

5 Separation of Legal Functions, Non-Professional Judiciary, Legal Knowledge

6 Citizen Participation in the Formation of Law and Procedure

7 Access

8 Comparison

References

Further Reading

Part VI: Social Values

Chapter 12: Informal Norms, Values, and Social Control in Greek Participatory Communities

1 Introduction

2 Education and Socialization

3 Festivals, Civic Norms, and Cohesion

4 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 13: Informal Norms, Values, and Social Control in the Roman Participatory Context

1 Introduction

2 Roman Discourse on

Mos

3 The Elaboration of the

Mos

4 Ways of Transmission and Control

5 Censors

6 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Part VII: Power Relations and Political Groups

Chapter 14: The Practice of Politics in Classical Athens, and the Paradox of Democratic Leadership

1 Politics in Post-Cleisthenic Athens

2 “The ruling hand of the

dēmos

” (Aeschylus,

Suppliants

604)

3 Politics Outside the Assembly

4 Athens' Democratic Paradox

5 Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 15: The Practice of Politics and the Unpredictable Dynamics of Clout in the Roman Republic

1 Politics and Power

2 The Nobility

3 The People's Choice

4 Senatorial Clout

5 The Popular Assemblies

6 Violence

7 Concluding Uncertainties

References

Further Reading

Part VIII: Rhetoric

Chapter 16: Persuading the People in Greek Participatory Communities

1 In Praise of Athens: Rhetoric, Patriotism, and Civic Ideology

2 Exhorting the Athenians: The Rhetoric of Betrayed Ideals

3 The Rhetoric of Good Citizenship

4 The Speaker and His Public: Feedback and its Problems

5 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 17: Persuading the People in the Roman Participatory Context

1 Typology, Venues, Audiences

2 The Problem Exemplified: Cicero against the Agrarian Law

3 The Rhetorical Construction of Ideology

References

Further Reading

Part IX: Global Contexts

Chapter 18: Interstate Relations, Colonization, and Empire among Greek Participatory Communities

1 A Greek International Community?

2 Colonization

3 Interstate Leagues

4 Athenian and Spartan Imperialism

5 Conclusions: The “Failure” of Greek Interstate Relations

References

Further Reading

Chapter 19: Interstate Relations, Federal States, Colonization, and Empire during the Roman Republic

1 “Democratic Rome” and the Extension of Roman Citizenship

2 Rome and Italy: City-States and Federal States

3 International Anarchy and Roman Exceptionalism

4 Conclusion

Note

References

Further Reading

Part X: Economic Life

Chapter 20: Production, Trade, and Consumption in Greek Democracy

1 Introduction

2 Production

3 The Effect of Enactments on Production

4 Distribution

5 The Effect of Enactments on Distribution

6 Consumption

7 The Effect of Enactments on Consumption

8 Economic Policies and the Athenian Assembly

9 Participatory Communities and Economic Decisions

10 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 21: Production, Trade, and Consumption in the Roman Republic

1 Introduction

2 Production

3 Trade

4 Consumption

5 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Part XI: Discourses of Inclusion and Exclusion

Chapter 22: Women and Slaves in Greek Democracy

1 Introduction: Recovering Diverse “Outsiders”

2 Athens' Tragic Theater: A Site for Critical Reflection on Citizenship

3 Epitaphic Oratory: Commemoration, Celebration, Ideology

4 Philosophy's Provocations: Dialectical Reflections on Citizenship

5 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 23: Women and Slaves in the Roman Republic

Appendix.

Amicus

/

Amica

in Plautus

References

Further Reading

Part XII: Entertainment

Chapter 24: Tragedy and Comedy in Greek Participatory Communities

1 Social, Physical, and Legal Organization

2 Politics and Drama

3 Political Drama in Action

4 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 25: Tragedy and Comedy in the Roman Participatory Context

1 Social, Physical, and Legal Organization

2 Politics and Drama

3 Political Theater in Action

4 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Part XIII: Visual Culture

Chapter 26: Art, Architecture, and Spaces in Greek Participatory Communities

1 Introduction: Democratic Visual Culture—or Visual Culture in Democracies?

2 Urbanism: Shaping Societies

3 Political Spaces: Public Installations and Buildings

4 Political Spaces: Imagery

5 Sacred Spaces: Sanctuaries

6 Sacred Spaces: Imagery

7 Mythological and Historical Topography

8 Necropoleis

9 The Private Sphere

10 Art Forms, Political Ideals, and Social Values

11 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 27: Art, Architecture, and Space in the Roman Participatory Context

1 Introduction

2 Political Spaces: The Roman Forum and Roman Fora

3 Sacred Topography: The Capitoline Temple and Other Temples of Rome during the Republic

4 Mythological Topography

5 Roman Architectural Replication: Colonies,

Comitia

and

Capitolia

6 Domestic Spaces:

Salutatio

and the Roman House

7 Art Forms and Social Values: Political Monuments

8 Art Forms and Social Values: Funerals and Tombs as a Method of Fashioning Personal and Family Identity

9 Art Forms and Social Values: Portraits

10 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Part XIV: Conclusion

Chapter 28: Thinking Comparatively about Participatory Communities

1 Liberty and Power

2 Power and International Relations

3 Humility, Confession, and Power

References

Further Reading

Index

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Introduction

Part I: The Emergence of Participatory Communities

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Figure 27.1

Figure 27.2

Figure 27.3

Figure 27.4

Figure 27.5

Figure 27.6

Figure 27.7

List of Tables

Table 3.1

Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World

This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises approximately twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.

Ancient History

A Companion to the Roman Army

Edited by Paul Erdkamp

A Companion to the Roman Republic

Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx

A Companion to the Roman Empire

Edited by David S. Potter

A Companion to the Classical Greek World

Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl

A Companion to the Ancient Near East

Edited by Daniel C. Snell

A Companion to the Hellenistic World

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Late Antiquity

Edited by Philip Rousseau

A Companion to Ancient History

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Archaic Greece

Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

A Companion to Julius Caesar

Edited by Miriam Griffin

A Companion to Byzantium

Edited by Liz James

A Companion to Ancient Egypt

Edited by Alan B. Lloyd

A Companion to Ancient Macedonia

Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington

A Companion to the Punic Wars

Edited by Dexter Hoyos

A Companion to Augustine

Edited by Mark Vessey

A Companion to Marcus Aurelius

Edited by Marcel van Ackeren

A Companion to Ancient Greek Government

Edited by Hans Beck

A Companion to the Neronian Age

Edited by Emma Buckley and Martin T. Dinter

A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic

Edited by Dean Hammer

A Companion to Livy

Edited by Bernard Mineo

Literature and Culture

A Companion to Classical Receptions

Edited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher Stray

A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography

Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Catullus

Edited by Marilyn B. Skinner

A Companion to Roman Religion

Edited by Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Religion

Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to the Classical Tradition

Edited by Craig W. Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric

Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric

Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Ancient Epic

Edited by John Miles Foley

A Companion to Greek Tragedy

Edited by Justina Gregory

A Companion to Latin Literature

Edited by Stephen Harrison

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought

Edited by Ryan K. Balot

A Companion to Ovid

Edited by Peter E. Knox

A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language

Edited by Egbert Bakker

A Companion to Hellenistic Literature

Edited by Martine Cuypers and James J. Clauss

A Companion to Vergil's Aeneid and its Tradition

Edited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam

A Companion to Horace

Edited by Gregson Davis

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Edited by Beryl Rawson

A Companion to Greek Mythology

Edited by Ken Dowden and Niall Livingstone

A Companion to the Latin Language

Edited by James Clackson

A Companion to Tacitus

Edited by Victoria Emma Pagán

A Companion to Women in the Ancient World

Edited by Sharon L. James and Sheila Dillon

A Companion to Sophocles

Edited by Kirk Ormand

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

Edited by Daniel Potts

A Companion to Roman Love Elegy

Edited by Barbara K. Gold

A Companion to Greek Art

Edited by Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris Plantzos

A Companion to Persius and Juvenal

Edited by Susanna Braund and Josiah Osgood

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic

Edited by Jane DeRose Evans

A Companion to Terence

Edited by Antony Augoustakis and Ariana Traill

A Companion to Roman Architecture

Edited by Roger B. Ulrich and Caroline K. Quenemoen

A Companion to Sport and Spectacle in Greek and Roman Antiquity

Edited by Paul Christesen and Donald G. Kyle

A Companion to Plutarch

Edited by Mark Beck

A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities

Edited by Thomas K. Hubbard

A Companion to the Ancient Novel

Edited by Edmund P. Cueva and Shannon N. Byrne

A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean

Edited by Jeremy McInerney

A Companion to Ancient Egyptian Art

Edited by Melinda Hartwig

A Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient World

Edited by Rubina Raja and Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic

Edited by

Dean Hammer

This edition first published 2015

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

A companion to Greek democracy and the Roman republic / edited by Dean Hammer.

pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4443-3601-6 (cloth)

1. Greece—Politics and government—To 146 B.C. 2. Rome—Politics and government—265-30 B.C. 3. Greece—Economic conditions—To 146 B.C. 4. Rome—Economic conditions—510-30 B.C. I. Hammer, Dean, 1959–

JC73.C673 2015

320.938— dc23

2014012679

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Cesare Maccari, Cicero Denounces Catiline (detail of fresco), 1880. Palazzo Madama, Rome. © akg-images / Album / Oronoz

Notes on Contributors

Valentina Arena

is Lecturer in Roman History at University College London. Her work focuses mainly on the history of ideas and political thought, its relationship with the practice of politics and the study of Roman oratory and rhetorical techniques. She is the author of

Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the late Roman Republic

(2012). Her essays have appeared in a wide range of scholarly journals and edited volumes.

Larissa M. Atkison

is a PhD candidate at the University of Toronto and is currently finishing work on her dissertation, entitled “Tragic Rhetoric: Sophocles and the Politics of Good Sense.” During the 2013–2014 academic year, she will hold the Classics and Contemporary Perspectives Post-Doctoral Fellowship at the University of South Carolina. Atkison has contributed an entry on Sophocles to the forthcoming

Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Thought

. She specializes in classical political thought, rhetoric, and contemporary democratic theory.

Ryan K. Balot

is Professor of Political Science and Classics at the University of Toronto. The author of

Greed and Injustice in Classical Athens

(2001),

Greek Political Thought

(2006), and

Courage in the Democratic Polis: Ideology and Critique in Classical Athens

(2014), and editor of

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought

(2009), Balot specializes in American, early modern, and classical political thought.

Sarah Bolmarcich

, after a year spent in Greece studying on a Fulbright, received her PhD in Classics from the University of Virginia with a dissertation on Greek interstate diplomacy in the archaic and classical periods. She has taught at the universities of Michigan, Minnesota, and Texas (Austin), and currently teaches at the Arizona State University.

Craige B. Champion

teaches ancient history at Syracuse University. He is the author of

Cultural Politics in Polybius's Histories

(2004), editor of

Roman Imperialism: Readings and Sources

(2004), one of the general editors of the Wiley Blackwell

Encyclopedia of Ancient History

(2013), and co-editor of the forthcoming

Landmark Edition of the Histories of Polybius

. He is currently completing a book tentatively titled

Pax Deorum: Elite Religious Practices in the Middle Roman Republic

.

David Cohen

is Emeritus Professor of Rhetoric and Classics at University of California, Berkeley and currently the director of the WSD HANDA Center for Human Rights and International Justice at Stanford and Professor of Law at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. He has authored

Indifference and Accountability: The United Nations and the Politics of International Justice in East Timor

(2006),

The Legacy of the Serious Crimes Trials in East Timor

(2006),

Law, Violence, and Community in Classical Athens

(1995),

Law, Society, and Sexuality: The Enforcement of Morals at Classical Athens

(1991), and

The Athenian Law of Theft

(1983).

Luuk de Ligt

is Professor of Ancient History at Leiden University. He is the author of

Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire

(1993) and of

Peasants, Citizens and Soldiers: Studies in the Demographic History of Roman Italy 225

BC–AD

100

(2012), and co-editor (with Simon Northwood) of

People, Land, and Politics. Demographic Developments and the Transformation of Roman Italy, 300

BC–AD

14

(2008). He has published extensively on Roman economic history, the history of Roman associations, and Roman demography.

Vincent Farenga

is Professor of Classics and Comparative Literature at the University of Southern California. He is the author of

Citizen and Self in Ancient Greece: Individuals Performing Justice and the Law

(2006). He has published a number of articles on expressions of individualism in Greek literature and political history (especially on Greek tyranny), and he is currently completing a study of literature and justice within a global context in contemporary authors and political philosophers.

Nick Fisher

is Professor Emeritus of Ancient History at Cardiff University. He has published widely on the political, social, and cultural history of ancient Greece. He has published

Aeschines, Against Timarchos

(2001),

Slavery in Classical Greece

(1993),

HYBRIS. A Study in the Values of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greece

(1992), a sourcebook on

Social Values in Classical Athens

(1976), and many articles and co-edited volumes.

Michael P. Fronda

is Associate Professor in the Department of History and Classical Studies at McGill University. His research focuses on domestic and interstate politics in Roman and pre-Roman Italy. He is author of

Between Rome and Carthage: Southern Italy in the Second Punic War

(2010) as well as articles on the Hannibalic War, Roman political culture, foreign policy and imperialism, Roman–Italian relations, and the Italiote League.

Dean Hammer

is the John W. Wetzel Professor of Classics and Professor of Government at Franklin and Marshall College (USA). He has authored

The Puritan Tradition in Revolutionary, Federalist, and Whig Political Theory

(1998),

The

Iliad

as Politics: The Performance of Political Thought

(2002),

Roman Political Thought and the Modern Theoretical Imagination

(2008), and

Roman Political Thought: From Cicero to Augustine

(2015), as well as numerous articles on Greek, Roman, and modern political thought.

Tonio Hölscher

, born in 1940, is Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He was Meyer Shapiro Visiting Professor at Columbia University in New York, Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Study at Berlin, Jerome Lecturer at the University of Michigan and the American Academy in Rome, Research Professor at the German Archaeological Institute in Rome, Sather Guest Professor at the University of Berkeley and Visiting Professor at the University of California Berkeley, and Princeton. His main interests are art, policy, and society in ancient Greece and Rome, Greek and Roman urbanism, and theories of art.

Mary Jaeger

is Professor of Classics at the University of Oregon, where she has taught since 1990. She is the author of

Livy's Written Rome

(1997),

Archimedes and the Roman Imagination

(2008), and

A Livy Reader

(2011).

David Konstan

is Professor of Classics at New York University and Professor Emeritus of Classics and Comparative Literature at Brown University. Among his books are

Sexual Symmetry: Love in the Ancient Novel and Related Genres

(1994),

Greek Comedy and Ideology

(1995),

Friendship in the Classical World

(1997),

Pity Transformed

(2001),

The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature

(2006),

“A Life Worthy of the Gods”: The Materialist Psychology of Epicurus

(2008),

Terms for Eternity: Aiônios and aïdios in Classical and Christian Texts

(with Ilaria Ramelli, 2007),

Before Forgiveness: The Origins of a Moral Idea

(2010), and

Beauty: The Fortunes of an Ancient Greek Idea

.

Kathryn A. Morgan

is Professor of Classics at UCLA, where she has taught since 1996. She is the author of

Myth and Philosophy from the Presocratics to Plato

(2000), and editor of

Popular Tyranny: Sovereignty and its Discontents in Ancient Greece

(Austin, 2003). Her most recent book is

Pindar and the Construction of Syracusan Monarchy in the Fifth Century BC

(forthcoming).

Robert Morstein-Marx

is Professor of Classics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is the author of two books,

Hegemony to Empire: The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148 to 62

B.C

. (1995), and

Mass Oratory and Political Power in the Late Roman Republic

(2004). He is also co-editor (with N. Rosenstein) of

A Companion to the Roman Republic

(2006). His current research focuses on political culture and communication in the late Roman Republic.

Henrik Mouritsen

is Professor of Roman History at King's College London. He has published widely on Roman political and social history, Roman Italy and Latin epigraphy. His books include

Elections, Magistrates and Municipal Elite

(1988),

Italian Unification

(1998),

Plebs and Politics

(2001), and

The Freedman in the Roman World

(2011).

Shawn O'Bryhim

is Professor of Classics at Franklin & Marshall College. He edited and contributed to

Greek and Roman Comedy

(2001) and has written several articles on Plautus, Catullus, Ovid, and ancient Mediterranean religions.

Ellen Perry

is Associate Professor in the Department of Classics at the College of the Holy in Worcester, Massachusetts. She has published articles on Roman sarcophagi, the aesthetics of ancient painting, the history of plaster cast collections, and the Roman imitation of Greek art. Her book

The Aesthetics of Emulation in the Visual Arts of Ancient Rome

appeared in 2005, and she is currently writing a book about the Capitoline Temple.

Kurt A. Raaflaub

is Professor Emeritus of Classics and History at Brown University. His research has focused on the social, political, and intellectual history of archaic and classical Greece and of the Roman Republic, and the comparative history of the ancient world. His recent books include

The Discovery of Freedom in Ancient Greece

(2004),

War and Peace in the Ancient World

(edited, 2007), and

Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece

(co-authored, 2007).

P.J. Rhodes

was Professor of Ancient History and is now Honorary Professor at the University of Durham (UK), and is particularly interested in Greek politics and political institutions. His books include

The Athenian Boule

(1972),

A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia

(1981), and

The Decrees of the Greek States

(with D.M. Lewis, 1997).

Joseph Roisman

is a Professor of Classics at Colby College, USA. Among his rhetoric-related publications are

The Rhetoric of Manhood: Masculinity According to the Attic Orators

(2005),

The Rhetoric of Conspiracy in Ancient Athens

(2006), and

Pseudo-Plutarch and Photius on the Lives of the Ten Orators

(with I. Worthington, forthcoming).

Malcolm Schofield

is Emeritus Professor of Ancient Philosophy, University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of St. John's College. He was co-editor with Christopher Rowe of

The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought

(2000).

The Stoic Idea of the City

(1991) and

Plato: Political Philosophy

(2006) are among his major solo publications. Current projects include a book on Cicero's political thought and a new translation (with Tom Griffith) of Plato's

Laws

.

Keith Sidwell

is Emeritus Professor of Latin and Greek at University College Cork and Adjunct Professor of Classics at the University of Calgary. He has published widely on Greek comedy and tragedy, including a recent study of politics in Old Comedy,

Aristophanes the Democrat: The Politics of Satirical Comedy during the Peloponnesian War

(2009).

Roberta Stewart

is Professor of Classics at Dartmouth College. She has authored two books,

Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice

(1998) and

Plautus and Roman Slavery

(2012). She has published articles on Roman religion, Roman numismatics, Latin literature, and Latin lexicography (for the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae in Munich).

David W. Tandy

, Research Fellow in Classics at the University of Leeds and Professor Emeritus of Classics at the University of Tennessee, concentrates on Near Eastern and Greek economic history, on Homer, Hesiod, lyric poets, on Athenian taxation and aspects of fourth-century Greece.

W. Jeffrey Tatum

is Professor of Classics at the Victoria University of Wellington. He is the author of

The Patrician Tribune: Publius Clodius Pulcher

(1999),

Always I Am Caesar

(2008),

A Caesar Reader

(2012), and

Plutarch: The Rise of Rome

(with Chris Pelling, 2013), in addition to numerous papers and chapters on Roman history and Latin literature.

Robert W. Wallace

is Professor of Classics at Northwestern University. He is the author of books on Athens' Areopagus Council and the music theorist (and Pericles' adviser) Damon, co-author of a book on the origins of Greek democracy, and co-editor of four other books. He has published some eighty-five articles in different areas of archaic and classical Greek history, literature, law, numismatics, and music theory.

Callie Williamson

is an independent scholar and attorney. Her first book,

The Laws of the Roman People

, won the 2005 American Historical Association Breasted Prize for best book in the English language on any period before 1000

CE

. She has also written on the significance of Roman laws engraved on bronze tablets, and contributed to the definitive edition of early Roman laws published as

Roman Statutes

(1996), edited by Michael Crawford.

Introduction

Dean Hammer

Scholarship on Greek democracy and the Roman Republic has proceeded largely on two separate paths, rarely noticing each other, let alone intersecting. There are many reasons for this. One is specialization, which has led scholars to pursue questions unique to Greek or Roman life without necessarily recognizing or exploring how similar questions resonate in a comparative perspective. A second reason is that there does not seem to be much to compare. Ancient Greece, with the emphasis by scholars on Athens, appears as an open, vibrant, creative democracy while ancient Rome, in contrast, looks like a closed, plodding oligarchy.

But much has changed in our evaluations of both Greece and Rome. Greece's democratic picture has become as complex as Rome's oligarchic one, particularly as new methodologies and approaches have analyzed the formal and informal ways in which political, economic, social, and cultural meanings are enacted and enforced, as well as resisted (see Hammer 2009 for a review of methodological approaches to the ancient world). These approaches view literary texts, institutional forms, community spaces, human bodies, and economic transactions as ideological enactments. By that I do not mean that there is a univocal ideology expressed, but that we can read in these artifacts the expressions, tensions, contradictions, and even transformations in the thoughts and practices of these communities (on conceptualizations of ideologies, see Geertz 1973; Douglas 1966, 1978, 1982; Turner 1974, 1988; Bourdieu 1977; Ricoeur 1986; Hammer 2006). Moreover, an understanding of the politics of these communities requires more than an analysis of formal political institutions, not because institutions are unimportant but because they are types of formalized practices that are embedded in and comprehensible by way of other practices.

This volume builds on these approaches by providing a comprehensive and comparative exploration of the origins, concepts, and practices that emerge in the enactment of what we can understand as participatory communities in ancient Greece and Rome. The term participatory community draws attention to the range of different types of communities and different forms of participation one encounters in the ancient world, not only between Greece and Rome but within Greece, as well. A participatory community is one in which politics is no longer seen as the exclusive preserve of one small group but premises the legitimacy of important political outcomes on some aspect of broad participation. The term provides a common language by which we can think about and compare Greek participatory communities with the Roman Republic (understanding the term as designating a participatory community dating from roughly 509–31 BCE) rather than categorizing these communities beforehand (and not particularly helpfully) as democracies, aristocracies, or oligarchies. Furthermore, the term allows us to distinguish these communities from ancient kingdoms and dynasties.

The term enactment draws attention to how institutional forms, informal norms, myths and legends, community spaces, philosophic and literary texts, rhetoric, political vocabulary, public displays, entertainment, economic transactions, and global relations are interconnected practices by which communities negotiate their identities, identify and respond to crises, and reflect on their own cultures. As practices, they may arise in response to specific situations or conditions, coming into conflict or existing in tension with other practices. As they bear the imprint of the past, these practices may serve as an impediment to change as well as provide the language and experiences by which change can be articulated and imagined. Drawing on some of the challenging questions raised in contemporary scholarship, each chapter explores how different enactments give us insight into the origins, concepts, and practices of these participatory communities. Together these chapters provide a complex portrait of the interaction of different practices in forming, ordering, sustaining, developing, and imperiling participatory communities.

The Companion is distinct in viewing ancient Greek and Roman participatory communities through a comparative lens. Unlike other books that either analyze Greece and Rome separately or organize them chronologically, focusing on texts, authors, and subjects unique to either Greece or Rome, this volume is organized by topic (or types of enactments, using the language above) with parallel chapters that examine the Greek and Roman participatory contexts. The volume brings into conversation with each other an international array of Greek and Roman scholars with diverse methodological orientations. The authors of each of the parallel chapters worked with each other throughout the project, organizing each chapter with an eye toward the other, reading each other's chapters, and ultimately highlighting comparisons that emerge from each of the cases. The result is a distinct resource for students and scholars. One can use material specific to Greece or Rome (for courses, for example). But one can also look at how these same enactments play out in the comparison community (for courses, but also as a starting point for comparative inquiry for students and scholars). What emerges from this comparative context is an enriched understanding of the types of relationships that sustained these participatory communities, the challenges these communities faced, and how they responded.

In the opening chapter, David Konstan asks in what way we can profitably compare Greek and Roman participatory communities, given the different types of institutions, the little we know about many of these communities (not the least of which early Rome), and the historical interrelationship between Greek and Roman politics and ideas. What emerges, as Konstan writes, are “two stories of the evolution of participatory government, in which relative exclusiveness in respect to citizenship, both vertical along class divisions or horizontal among adjacent communities, was the most salient factor” (14). In the chapters that follow, one sees played out these different trajectories of inclusiveness: one in which the equality and autonomy associated with citizenship in Greek poleis extended no further than their borders and the other in which the hierarchical gradations of rights and responsibilities associated with Rome provided greater opportunities for incorporation. The importance of comparison is not to decide which of these choices is best, or even to pronounce general laws of politics, but to note the stress points, limits, and tradeoffs of different participatory paths.

Kurt Raaflaub and Michael Fronda trace the origins and different trajectories of Greek and Roman participatory communities, noting, for example, the similar early city-state structures and social roots for such important political ideas as freedom and liberty. But Greek and Roman developments get mediated through different international pressures (the Greek city-states developing without such international pressures until Persian expansion versus Rome emerging in a continuously hostile environment), class structures (an elite never able to separate itself from the non-elite versus a highly cohesive elite in Rome forged by continual outside pressure), and different available solutions to such crises as debt-bondage (limits on the aristocracy versus conquest). In Greece, the weakness of the elite combined with the indispensable role of non-elite citizens moved these communities toward increased equality of citizenship with strong boundaries limiting new membership. In Rome, expanding claims for protection and participation by non-elites did not result in equality, but occurred within a hierarchic culture with gradations of opportunities and obligations, dominated by strong aristocratic clans. Unlike the more egalitarian Greek poleis, Rome had both the structures and the need to expand and integrate outside groups.

Kathryn Morgan and Mary Jaeger examine how these participatory communities constructed their pasts, looking at how the respective conceptions of land informed their imagination. The myths of these pasts are themselves creations of the present, evolving to suit supra-regional affiliations, reinforce claims of military supremacy (as in the case of Sparta), maintain exclusive identities (with myths of autochthony in Thebes and Athens), justify notions of incorporation and inclusion (Rome), and instill habits of discipline, moderation, and vigor (with the idealization of agrarian origins shared by Athens and Rome). What Morgan and Jaeger identify is how these myths are not just propagandistic, but also the basis for critical reflection, differing interpretations, and debate within the community.

Vincent Farenga and Malcolm Schofield analyze the different expressions of liberty, equality, and authority. There are some fundamental similarities in how freedom comes to be defined against the experience of domination and associated with demands for equality (though an equality that is understood in fundamentally different ways in Greece and Rome). But there are striking differences, particularly in conceptions of authority. Although the Greeks, as Farenga argues, had a notion of authority as a recognition of legitimate claims to be obeyed, a claim that is in tension with an egalitarian dēmos ideology, the Roman concept of auctoritas is distinctive in joining together a “mutually reinforcing union of social and political standing and of impressiveness in character and judgment, with a consequential power to exert influence” (Schofield: 125). Liberty, equality, and authority took on very different resonances in the practices of these communities: one tied to contending ideologies, the other as a broader corporate framework in which that competition occurred.

P.J. Rhodes and Henrik Mouritsen identify how the institutional structures of these participatory communities reflected different political ideologies. Across Greece one sees a correspondence of government with citizenship in the sense that citizens, as an undifferentiated group, shared in ruling and being ruled, extending into legislative, legal, and religious matters. In contrast, Roman institutions rested on a differentiated citizen-body that defined gradations of rights and duties. But underlying these institutions is a paradox: it was the Roman Republic that collapsed from the failure of its institutions to curb individual ambition. The Roman elite found itself without the means to enforce its authority and secure political order. Roman institutions could prevent the revolt of the masses; they just could not, in ways that Greek institutions could, stem the excesses of the elite.

David Cohen and Callie Williamson continue this discussion of institutions, looking specifically at law. Cohen points to the participatory nature of law in Athenian democracy, identifying the fiction of the “rule of law” since neither laws nor a body with authority to interpret the laws had priority over the people (even as attempts were made to provide some consistency to the law). In Rome, though, the law code of the Twelve Tables occupied a much more prominent role in the evolution of law and legal procedure, an evolution shaped by citizen participation, Rome's hierarchic social structure, and the inclusion of new groups.

Nick Fisher and Valentina Arena tap into the less visible ways in which participatory cultures operate, examining the mechanisms by which citizens learned to be citizens, whether by instilling awareness of these norms through civic instruction or through participation in particular rituals and celebrations. In Greece, even in communities as different as Sparta and Athens, there was an emphasis on the similarity of all citizens, united in their civic devotion, reinforcing ideals of discipline and athleticism (in the more regimented forms of education in Sparta) and freedom and democracy (in the more open, panhellenic festivals and performances of Athens). In Rome, civic values were bound closely to appeals to the mos maiorum, the ancestral customs. Although traditional and aristocratic, the mos were also fluid and adaptable, their meanings reinforced through elite orations, public displays, social spaces, and tightly controlled forms of education.

Robert Wallace and Jeffrey Tatum reveal the complexities and some of the paradoxes of the operation of power in these participatory communities. Although the dēmos held sway in the Greek participatory communities, it was a sway that could still be strongly influenced by strong leaders, notably Pericles, who, Wallace argues, may have wielded quite undemocratic power. In Rome, by contrast, power lay with reputation that operated within a competitive, hierarchical political order that was organized by traditions of popular sovereignty and the ways of one's ancestors. But, as Tatum notes, “What obtrudes is the uncertainty…of the outcome whenever these elements [of prestige and popular sovereignty] combined or came into conflict… It is not the constituents of clout, then, that elude modern historians so much as their effective application in specific circumstances” (270).

Joseph Roisman and Robert Morstein-Marx develop how rhetoric and persuasion operated in these participatory contexts in which oral communication was central. Roisman shows how epideictic, forensic, and deliberative forms of rhetoric served to reinforce a dēmos ideology that was central to Athens' identity, exclusivity, and sense of superiority. The chapter, like Morstein-Marx's, also points to the often unpredictable and tumultuous aspects of this rhetorical climate in which others in the audience could and did respond. This clamor functions in a Greek participatory context to align the views of the speaker with that of the dēmos, even if such actions served to silence some views or preclude good advice. As in Greece, Roman oratory functioned to promote the norms and values of the Republic, though in contrast emphasizing norms of dignitas, honor, virtus, and auctoritas. A combination of the lack of transparency in Roman politics (in dramatic contrast to Greece) and the norms of respect for dignitas and auctoritas “ensured that in open, public deliberation, those who spoke were senators while ordinary citizens were reduced strictly to listening and reacting to what they heard.” The result was that “the balance of ‘communicative power’ was tilted heavily toward senators and toward the collective perspective of the Senate” (Morstein-Marx: 300). If Roman oratory worked to assert the supremacy of the nobility (rather than as a response to dēmos authority), it did so only incompletely, subject to the pull of the crowd.

Sarah Bolmarcich and Craige Champion look at the global contexts in which these participatory communities operated, examining how the social values of these communities informed their relations with other states. Bolmarcich traces how Greek federations, although trading on the language of equality and reciprocity, tended to be transformed into forms of power and domination. Ultimately, the ideology of these participatory communities existed in tension with broader relations: democratic claims based on sovereignty inhibited attempts at broader interstate participation or were, in fact, undermined as this sovereignty was ceded. In contrast, Champion demonstrates how Roman hierarchical social relations formed the thread by which Rome constituted its relations with other states. Unlike the egalitarian Greek communities, Rome had a variety of mechanisms by which it could form agreements and expand while incorporating new citizens.

David Tandy and Luuk de Ligt situate economic life in these participatory communities, noting their similar origins as small, agrarian societies with views of economic activity as necessary but not admirable. Greece and Rome diverged most notably in the relative integration of their domestic economies to a world economy. Where the Greek city-states remained closed, protective of their identities, Rome underwent dramatic changes in agrarian and non-agrarian production, commerce, and consumption that were set in motion by imperialism. The expanding economy increased the flow of wealth into Rome, both undermining the traditional austerity associated with elite virtue and providing resources by which particular social tensions could be postponed.

Ryan Balot, Larissa Atkison, and Roberta Stewart explore the rhetoric of exclusion in these participatory communities. One important aspect of the status of these marginal groups lies in their lack of any public voice, leaving us to piece together this world largely through the concerns of male citizens. What emerges in these chapters is an understanding of the status and roles of women and slaves as more negotiated, and the subject of more cultural anxiety, than often assumed. Balot and Atkison analyze how civic identities were shaped and affirmed in rhetorical encounters with and exclusions of the “other” as well as challenged by way of tragedy and philosophy. Stewart explores the interactions of slave and master as well as the gender dynamics of social relations, noting the complex ways in which non-Roman outsiders could be made insiders or could be incorporated in a status of subordination as non-Roman within the Roman system. We see in both the Greek and Roman cases how categories of “insider” and “outsider” emerge as narratives of power that affirm (and may provide the basis for critical reflection on) the identity and status of citizens.

Keith Sidwell and Shawn O'Bryhim place entertainment in its participatory context. Sidwell challenges the conception of Greek theater as simply mirroring the values of the dēmos