Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications -  - E-Book

Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications E-Book

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Advanced membranes-from fundamentals and membrane chemistry tomanufacturing and applications A hands-on reference for practicing professionals, AdvancedMembrane Technology and Applications covers the fundamentalprinciples and theories of separation and purification bymembranes, the important membrane processes and systems, and majorindustrial applications. It goes far beyond the basics to addressthe formulation and industrial manufacture of membranes andapplications. This practical guide: * Includes coverage of all the major types of membranes:ultrafiltration; microfiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis(including the recent high-flux and low-pressure membranes andanti-fouling membranes); membranes for gas separations; andmembranes for fuel cell uses * Addresses six major topics: membranes and applications in waterand wastewater; membranes for biotechnology and chemical/biomedicalapplications; gas separations; membrane contractors and reactors;environmental and energy applications; and membrane materials andcharacterization * Includes discussions of important strategic issues and thefuture of membrane technology With chapters contributed by leading experts in their specificareas and a practical focus, this is the definitive reference forprofessionals in industrial manufacturing and separations andresearch and development; practitioners in the manufacture andapplications of membranes; scientists in water treatment,pharmaceutical, food, and fuel cell processing industries; processengineers; and others. It is also an excellent resource forresearchers in industry and academia and graduate students takingcourses in separations and membranes and related fields.

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Contents

PREFACE

ABOUT THE EDITORS

CONTRIBUTORS

PART I: MEMBRANES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

CHAPTER 1 Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Reverse Osmosis

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 APPLICATION OF RO MEMBRANES

1.3 MAJOR PROGRESS IN RO MEMBRANES

1.4 TRENDS IN RO MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

1.5 REVERSE OSMOSIS/BIOFOULING PROTECTION

1.6 LOW-FOULING RO MEMBRANE FOR WASTEWATER RECLAMATION

1.7 CHLORINE TOLERANCE OF CROSS-LINKED AROMATIC POLYAMIDE MEMBRANE

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 2 Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Reverse Osmosis

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 HISTORY OF CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE

2.3 TOYOBO RO MODULE FOR SEAWATER DESALINATION

2.4 ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF TOYOBO RO MODULE FOR SEAWATER DESALINATION

2.5 MOST RECENT RO MODULE OF CELLULOSE TRIACETATE

2.6 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3 Seawater Desalination

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANT CONFIGURATION

3.3 WATER PRODUCTION COSTS

3.4 FUTURE TRENDS

3.5 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4 Seawater Desalination by Ultralow-Energy Reverse Osmosis

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 SWRO ENERGY REDUCTION USING ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY

4.3 SWRO ENERGY OPTIMIZATION

4.4 AFFORDABLE DESALINATION COLLABORATION (ADC)

4.5 CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 RECENT TRENDS AND PROGRESS IN MF/UF TECHNOLOGY

5.3 FUTURE PROSPECTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 6 Water Treatment by Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 MATERIALS, MODULE CONFIGURATIONS, AND MANUFACTURERS

6.3 MICROFILTRATION/ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT

6.4 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS

6.5 MEMBRANE FOULING AND CLEANING

6.6 INTEGRATED MEMBRANE SYSTEMS (MF or UF + RO or NF)

6.7 BACKWASH WATER REUSE, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 7 Water Reclamation and Desalination by Membranes

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 WATER RECLAMATION AND SEAWATER DESALINATION

7.3 COST ESTIMATION

7.4 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR WATER RECLAMATION

7.5 COST OF WATER RECLAMATION

7.6 PROCESS OPTIONS FOR DESALINATION

7.7 COST OF DESALINATION

7.8 WATER REUSE VERSUS DESALINATION

7.9 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8 Chitosan Membranes with Nanoparticles for Remediation of Chlorinated Organics

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 EXPERIMENTAL SECTION

8.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

8.4 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 9 Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 PRINCIPLE OF THE MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR PROCESS

9.3 MBR DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

9.4 APPLICATIONS AND COST

9.5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 10 Submerged Membranes

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 MODES OF OPERATION OF SUBMERGED MEMBRANES

10.3 SUBMERGED MEMBRANE MODULE GEOMETRIES

10.4 BUBBLING AND HYDRODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS

10.5 PRACTICAL ASPECTS

10.6 APPLICATIONS

10.7 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 11 Nanofiltration

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 PROCESS PRINCIPLES

11.3 APPLICATION OF NANOFILTRATION FOR PRODUCTION OF DRINKING WATER AND PROCESS WATER

11.4 WASTEWATER POLISHING AND WATER REUSE

11.5 OTHER APPLICATIONS

11.6 SOLVENT-RESISTANT NANOFILTRATION

11.7 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 12 Membrane Distillation

12.1 INTRODUCTION TO MEMBRANE DISTILLATION

12.2 MEMBRANE DISTILLATION MEMBRANES AND MODULES

12.3 MEMBRANE DISTILLATION MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES

12.4 TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN MD: TEMPERATURE POLARIZATION, CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION, AND THEORETICAL MODELS

12.5 MEMBRANE DISTILLATION APPLICATIONS

12.6 LONG-TERM MD PERFORMANCE AND MEMBRANE FOULING IN MD

12.7 HYBRID MD SYSTEMS

12.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN MD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 13 Ultrapure Water by Membranes

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 INTEGRATED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY IN UPW SYSTEMS

REFERENCES

PART II MEMBRANES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CHEMICAL/BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 14 Tissue Engineering with Membranes

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL TISSUE CULTURE

14.3 MICROMEMBRANE PROBES FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING MONITORING

14.4 FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES

14.5 SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 15 Biopharmaceutical Separations by Ultrafiltration

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 ULTRAFILTRATION: AN OVERVIEW

15.3 BASIC WORKING PRINCIPLES OF ULTRAFILTRATION

15.4 ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES AND DEVICES

15.5 ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESSES

15.6 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 16 Nanofiltration in Organic Solvents

16.1 ORGANIC SOLVENT NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES

16.2 OSN TRANSPORT MECHANISMS–THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

16.3 APPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC SOLVENT NANOFILTRATION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 17 Pervaporation

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 APPLICATIONS OF AZEO SEP AND VOC SEP

17.3 COMPUTER SIMULATION OF MODULE PERFORMANCE

17.4 PERMEATION AND SEPARATION MODEL IN HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE MODULE

17.5 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 18 Biomedical Applications of Membranes

18.1 INTRODUCTION

18.2 MEMBRANE THERAPEUTIC TREATMENTS

18.3 MEDICAL MEMBRANE PROPERTIES

18.4 MEDICAL MEMBRANE MATERIALS

18.5 BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MEMBRANE-BASED THERAPEUTIC TREATMENTS

18.6 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 19 Hemodialysis Membranes

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 TRANSPORT REQUIREMENTS

19.3 OTHER REQUIREMENTS

19.4 MEMBRANE MATERIALS, SPINNING TECHNOLOGY, AND STRUCTURE

19.5 DIALYZER DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE

19.6 CURRENT MARKET TRENDS

19.7 FUTURE DIRECTIONS

19.8 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 20 Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture

20.1 INTRODUCTION

20.2 TANGENTIAL-FLOW FILTRATION

20.3 TANGENTIAL-FLOW FILTRATION FOR VIRUS CAPTURE

20.4 TANGENTIAL-FLOW FILTRATION FOR VIRUS CLEARANCE

20.5 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

PART III GAS SEPARATIONS

CHAPTER 21 Vapor and Gas Separation by Membranes

21.1 INTRODUCTION TO MEMBRANES AND MODULES

21.2 MEMBRANE PROCESS DESIGN

21.3 APPLICATIONS

21.4 CONCLUSIONS

21.5 GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 22 Gas Separation by Polyimide Membranes

22.1 INTRODUCTION

22.2 PERMEABILITY AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF POLYIMIDES

22.3 MANUFACTURE OF ASYMMETRIC MEMBRANE

22.4 MEMBRANE MODULE

22.5 APPLICATIONS OF POLYIMIDE GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 23 Gas Separation by Carbon Membranes

23.1 INTRODUCTION

23.2 STRUCTURE OF CARBON MEMBRANES

23.3 TRANSPORT IN CARBON MEMBRANES

23.4 FORMATION OF CARBON MEMBRANES

23.5 CURRENT SEPARATION PERFORMANCE

23.6 PRODUCTION OF CMS MODULES

23.7 CHALLENGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CMS MEMBRANES

23.8 DIRECTION OF CARBON MEMBRANE DEVELOPMENT

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 24 Polymeric Membrane Materials and Potential Use in Gas Separation

24.1 INTRODUCTION

24.2 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GAS SEPARATION IN POLYMER MEMBRANES

24.3 LIMITATIONS OF GAS SEPARATIONS USING POLYMER MEMBRANES

24.4 POLYMER MEMBRANE MATERIALS

24.5 MEMBRANE GAS SEPARATION APPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 25 Hydrogen Separation Membranes

25.1 INTRODUCTION

25.2 POROUS NONMETALLIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATIONS

25.3 HIGH-TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

25.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

REFERENCES

PART IV MEMBRANE CONTACTORS AND REACTORS

CHAPTER 26 Membrane Contactors

26.1 INTRODUCTION

26.2 MEMBRANE-BASED CONTACTING OF TWO FLUID PHASES

26.3 MEMBRANE-BASED SOLID–FLUID CONTACTING

26.4 TWO IMMOBILIZED PHASE INTERFACES

26.5 DISPERSIVE CONTACTING IN A MEMBRANE CONTACTOR

26.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 27 Membrane Reactors

27.1 STATE-OF-THE-ART ON CATALYTIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

27.2 ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENTS

27.3 SELECTIVE OXIDATIONS

27.4 BIOCATALYTIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

27.5 CATALYTIC CRYSTALS

27.6 INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

27.7 MICROREACTORS

27.8 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

PART V ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 28 Facilitated Transport Membranes for Environmental, Energy, and Biochemical Applications

28.1 INTRODUCTION

28.2 SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES WITH STRIP DISPERSION

28.3 CARBON-DIOXIDE-SELECTIVE MEMBRANES

28.4 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 29 Fuel Cell Membranes

29.1 INTRODUCTION TO FUEL CELLS

29.2 BACKGROUND ON FUEL CELL MEMBRANES

29.3 RECENT WORK ON NEW FUEL CELL MEMBRANES

29.4 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

PART VI MEMBRANE MATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION

CHAPTER 30 Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes

30.1 INTRODUCTION

30.2 RECENT PROGRESS IN MIXED-MATRIX MEMBRANES

30.3 SUMMARY AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 31 Fabrication of Hollow-Fiber Membranes by Phase Inversion

31.1 INTRODUCTION

31.2 BASIC UNDERSTANDING

31.3 RECENT PROGRESSES ON SINGLE-LAYER ASYMMETRIC HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANES

31.4 DUAL-LAYER HOLLOW FIBERS

31.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 32 Membrane Surface Characterization

32.1 INTRODUCTION

32.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF A MEMBRANE

32.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE HYDROPHILICITY

32.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE CHARGE

32.5 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE MORPHOLOGY

32.6 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 33 Membrane Characterization by Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry

33.1 INTRODUCTION

33.2 PRINCIPLE OF UTDR MEASUREMENT

33.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF INORGANIC MEMBRANE FOULING

33.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE BIOFOULING

33.5 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE COMPACTION

33.6 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE FORMATION

33.7 CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE MORPHOLOGY

33.8 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 34 Microstructural Optimization of Thin Supported Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Water Purification

34.1 INTRODUCTION

34.2 MORPHOLOGY, POROSITY, AND DEFECTS

34.3 OPTIMIZATION OF SUPPORTED MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

34.4 SYNTHESIS AND MANUFACTURING

34.5 CHARACTERIZATION

34.6 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 35 Structure/Property Characteristics of Polar Rubbery Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Removal

35.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

35.2 THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

35.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

35.4 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

Index

Copyright © 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey

Published simultaneously in Canada

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Advanced membrane technology and applications/edited by Norman N. Li . . . [et al.].

p. cm.

Includes index.

ISBN 978-0-471-73167-2 (cloth)

1. Membranes (Technology) 2. Six sigma (Quality control standard) 3. Membrane industry.

I. Li, Norman N.

TP159.M4A38 2008

660’.28424—dc22 2007041577

PREFACE

Since the last membrane book I published with the New York Academy of Sciences, I have attended several quite large membrane conferences including the one that I organized in the beautiful city of Irsee, Germany. I was struck by the fact that there had been very good progress made in the broad field of membranes science and technology. Also, membranes seem to be coming to the center of the water treatment and desalination technologies. Many parts of the world now are in critical need of clear water. Membrane technology is gaining increasing importance in treating and reusing wastewater and in producing potable water from seawater. It appears there is a timely need for a book that comprehensively reviews the up-to-date membrane technology and its many applications.

To undertake the task of publishing this book, I invited three of my colleagues, Tony Fan, Winston Ho, and Takeshi Matsuura to help, thus a team of four editors. Together we invited 35 chapters to cover membrane applications from gas to water separations. These chapters are now divided into six categories—membranes and applications in water and wastewater, membranes and applications in biotechnology and biomedical engineering, gas separations, membrane contactors and reactors, environmental and energy applications, and membrane materials and characterization. These six categories indeed cover a very broad field of applications.

I believe three somewhat unique features can be said about these chapters. One is that the percentage of contributors from industry is high. This is, of course, a relative comparison, in general, with the other published membrane books. As we know, most of the authors of the chapters in a membrane book are from academia, whereas many of the contributors from this book are from some of the major international membrane manufacturing companies. The other feature is that the chapters, in general, are more into applications than theories. The third feature is that a very strong coverage of water treatment and purification is presented for the reason mentioned above.

We are truly gratified to the strong response to contributing chapters. As a matter of fact, we still have quite many chapters that have been promised but have not been finished. This prompted me to consider publishing a second book in the near future. Meanwhile, we are indeed very pleased to have this book published and wish to thank all the reviewers and chapter contributors.

Norman N. Li

NL Chemical Technology, Inc.

Mount Prospect, Illinois

ABOUT THE EDITORS

Dr. Norman N. Li has about 40 years of working experience in the chemical and petroleum industries. He was a senior scientist with Exxon Research and Engineering Co, Director of Separation Science and Technology at UOP Co. and Director of Research and Technology at AlliedSignal Co. (now part of Honeywell). Since 1995, he is the president of NL Chemical Technology, Inc., which focuses on the development of membrane technologies. Dr. Li has more than 100 technical publications, 44 U.S. patents, and 13 books edited, all in the field of separation science and technology. He received the prestigious Award of Separation Science and Technology from the American Chemical Society, the Founders Award, Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering Research, and the Award in Chemical Engineering Practice from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Perkin Medal from the Society of Chemical Industry. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers held special symposia on membranes in his honor at its national meetings in 1995 and 2000. Dr. Li served as the president of the North American Membrane Society and the chair of the International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes (ICOM) in 1990. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, United States.

Dr. Tony Fane is a chemical engineer with a Ph.D. from Imperial College, London. He has been working on membranes since 1973 when he joined the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. His current interests are in membranes applied to environmental applications and the water cycle, with a focus on the sustainability aspects of membrane technology. He is a former director of the UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology at UNSW and recently Temasek Professor at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is currently director of the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre at NTU. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Membrane Science and Desalination. He is a fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, a recipient of the Centenary Medal in 2002 for services to Chemical Engineering and the Environment, and an honorary life member of the European Membrane Society.

Dr. W. S. Winston Ho is University Scholar Professor of Chemical and Materials Science and Engineering at the Ohio State University since 2002. Previously, he was a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Kentucky, after having more than 28 years of industrial R&D experience with Allied Chemical, Xerox, and Exxon, and serving as senior vice-president of technology at Commodore Separation Technologies. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering, United States, in 2002. A New Jersey Inventor of the Year (1991), Dr. Ho holds more than 50 U.S. patents in separation processes. He is co-editor of Membrane Handbook and the recipient of the Professional and Scholarly Publishing Award for the most outstannding engineering work in 1993. He received the 2006 Institute Award for Excellence in Industrial Gases Technology and the 2007 Clarence G. Gerhold Award from AIChE. He obtained his B.S. degree from National Taiwan University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, all in chemical engineering.

Dr. Takeshi Matsuura received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, and his doctoral degree from the Institute of Chemical Technology of the Technical University of Berlin in 1965. After working at the Department of Synthetic Chemisty of the University of Tokyo as a staff assistant and at the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of California as a postdoc, he joined the National Research Council of Canada in 1969. He became a chair professor at the University of Ottawa in 1992. He also served as the director of the Industrial Membrane Research Institute until he retired in 2002. He is now a visiting professor at the National University of Singapore and the University Technology Malaysia, Skudai. Dr. Matsuura received the Research Award of International Desalination and Environmental Association in 1983. A symposium of membrane gas separation was held at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the North American Membrane Society, May 18–22, 1996, Ottawa, to honor him and Dr. S. Sourirajan. He received the George S. Links Award for Excellence in Research from University of Ottawa in 1998. He has published more than 300 articles in refereed journals, authored and co-authored 3 books, and edited 4 books.

CONTRIBUTORS

Fakhir U. Baig, Petro Sep Membrane Technologies Inc., Oakville, Ontario, Canada

Richard W. Baker, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, California 94025

Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

Bart VanDer Bruggen and Jeroen Geens, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

G. Catapano, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Rende (CS), Italy

Tai-Shung Neal Chung, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260

P. Cornel, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute WAR, Darmstadt, Germany

Pierre Côté andMingang Liu, GE Water and Process Technologies, ZENON Membrane Solutions, Ontario, L6M 4B2, Canada

Zhanfeng Cui, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

Avijit Dey, Director – Application and Research, Omexell Inc., Stafford, Texas 77477

Enrico Drioli and Enrica Fontananova, Institute on Membrane Technology of the National Council Research (ITM-CNR), and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Rende (CS), Italy

Anthony G. Fane, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science & Technology, University of New South Wales, Australia 2052 and Singapore Membrane Technology Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Raja Ghosh, Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7, Canada

Alan R. Greenberg, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427

Alexis M. W. Hillock, Shabbir Husain, and William J.Koros, School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332

Sumod Kalakkunnath, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Center for Manufacturing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

Douglass S. Kalika, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Center for Manufacturing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

M. Kallioinen and M. Nystrom, Laboratory of Membrane Technology and Technical Polymer Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Lappeenranta, Finland

Sujatha Karoor, Renal Division, Baxter Healthcare Corp., McGaw Park, Illinois, Massachusetts

Yoji Kase, UBE Industries Ltd., Ichihara, Chiba 290-0045, Japan

M. D. Kennedy, J. Kamanyi, S. G. Salinas Rodriguez, N. H. Lee, J. C.Schippers, and G. Amy, UNESCO–IHE Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands

Mohamed Khayet, Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Physics, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

William B. Krantz, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, The Republic of Singapore, 117576

S. Krause, Microdyn-Nadir GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany

N. Kubota, T. Hashimoto, and Y. Mori, Microza Research & Development Department, Specialty Products & Systems R&D Center, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Fuji City, Shizuoka, 416-8501 Japan

A. Kumano and N. Fujiwara, Desalination Membrane Operating Department, Toyobo Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan

Victor A. Kusuma, Benny D. Freeman, and Miguel Jose-YacamaN, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712

Haiqing Lin, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, California 94025

Chunqing Liu and Santi Kulprathipanja, UOP LLC, 25 East Algonquin Road, Des Plaines, Illinois, 60017

Yi Hua Ma, Center for Inorganic Membrane Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609

M. L.Mottern, J. Y. Shi, K. Shgau, D. Yu, and Henk Verweiji, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1178

Norma J. Ofsthun, Clinical Science Department, Fresenius Medical Care, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420

Ho Bum Park and Young Moo Lee, School of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea

Peter N. Pintauro and Ryszard Wycisk, Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217

Raphael Semiat, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, The Wolfson Chemical Engineering Department, Technion City, Haifa, Israel

P.Silva, L. G. Peeva, and A. G. Livingston, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY, United Kingdom

Kamalesh K.Sirkar, Otto H. York Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Membrane Technologies, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102

Steven Siverns, EnviroTower, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 1R7, Canada

Mitsuru Suzuki, Medical Membrane Department, Toyobo Corp., Osaka, Japan

Yit-Hong Tee, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

R. L. Truby, Toray Membranes, Escondido, California 92026

Tadahiro Uemura and Masahiro Henmi, Global Environment Research Laboratories, Toray Industries Inc., Otsu Shiga, Japan

J. Vienken, Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany

Nikolay Voutchkov, Poseidon Resources Corporation, Stamford, Connecticut

S. Ranil Wickramasinghe, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1370

P. Jason Williams and William J. Koros, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Jian Zou, Jin Huang, and W. S. Winston Ho, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1180

PART I

MEMBRANES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER