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Sharpen advising expertise by exploring critical issues affecting the field Beyond Foundations, a core resource for experienced academic advisors, gives practitioners insight into important issues affecting academic advising. In addition to gaining understanding of foundational concepts and pressing concerns, master advisors engage with case studies to clarify their roles as educators of students, as thought leaders in institutions, and as advocates for the profession. Pillar documents--the NACADA Core Values, NACADA Concept of Academic Advising, and CAS Standards--serve as sources of both information and inspiration for those seeking to improve advising. New strategies inform advisors helping a diverse student population delineate meaningful educational goals. Each chapter prompts productive discussions with fellow advisors interested in cultivating advising excellence. To promote advisor influence in higher education, experienced contributors explain new trends--including the impact of external forces and legal issues on postsecondary institutions--and the evolution of advising as a profession and a field of inquiry. Expert insight and practical focus contribute to the development of experienced advisors. * Use existing resources in new ways to master advising roles and encourage student success * Apply theory to advance advising practice * Create and optimize professional development opportunities * Establish recognition for the contributions of academic advisors to the institution and higher education * Face challenges created by the changing higher education landscape Advisors must meet the expectations of students, parents, faculty members, administrators, and outside agencies, all while navigating an increasingly complex range of issues presented by a student population unlike any that has come before. Beyond Foundations provides the insight and clarity advisors need to help students achieve their educational goals and to advance the field.

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Table of Contents

Title Page




The Editors

The Authors


Understanding the Foundation and Development of Advising

Understanding the Goal of Advising: Student Success

Understanding the Master Advisor Concept


Chapter 1: The Evolution of Academic Advising as a Practice and as a Profession

Hilleary Himes and Janet Schulenberg

Reader Learning Outcomes

The First Advising Era (1620 to 1870): Academic Advising Is Unrecognized

The Second Era (1870 to 1970): Academic Advising Remains Unexamined

The Third Era (1970 to 2003): Academic Advising Is Examined

The Fourth Era (2003 to Present): Role of Academic Advising Is Actively Examined

Looking to the Future

Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 2: Theory as the Foundation of Advising

Peggy Jordan

Reader Learning Outcomes

Psychosocial Theories

Reasons for Learning About Theories

Case Study: Underdeveloped Academic and Communication Skills

Response to Case: Identity Formation Theory

Skills Used in Advising

Advisor or Counselor?

Case Study: Tragedy and Loss

Response to Case: Maslow's Hierarchy and Schlossberg’s Transition Theory

Case Study: Eating Disorder

Analysis of Case: Prescriptive Advising

Use of Theory to Prevent Problems

Case Study: Decision Making and Identity

Response to Case: Career, Cognitive, Strengths-Based, and Student Development Theories


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 3: Building Upon the Components of Academic Advising to Facilitate Change

Marsha A. Miller

Reader Learning Outcomes

Components of Academic Advising

Organizational Models of Academic Advising

Master Advisors as Meaning Makers

Master Advisors Reach Across Divides

Master Advisors Facilitate Change


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 4: Defining Academic Advising: Concepts and Contexts for Practice

Susan M. Campbell and Susan McWilliams

Reader Learning Outcomes

Informing Practice: The Three Pillars

Grounding and Guiding Academic Advising: The Advising Program

Advising as a High-Impact Practice

Implications for the Master Advisor

Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 5: Defining Student Success

Stephen O. Wallace and Beverly A. Wallace

Reader Learning Outcomes

A Dilemma Faced by Academic Advisors

Student Success—Everyone Is Talking About It

An Authentic Definition of Student Success

Student Success Definitions: Implications for Academic Advisors

Advising for Student Success

Case Study: What Is Wrong With This Picture?

Student Success Is Everyone's Success

“Did I Do the Right Thing?”

Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 6: Knowing and Reaching Students

Karen L. Archambault

Reader Learning Outcomes

Revisiting Identity Theories

Frameworks for Multicultural Interactions

Case Studies


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 7: Advanced Advising Practice: Becoming a Master Advisor

Marc Lowenstein and Jennifer L. Bloom

Reader Learning Outcomes

Committing to Lifelong Learning

Approaching Ethical Dilemmas

Facing Adversity

Modeling for Others


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 8: Advanced Legal Issues and the Master Advisor

Matthew M. Rust

Reader Learning Outcomes

Confidentiality and Privacy of Student Information

Advisors as Agents of the University

Equal Rights and Due Process


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 9: A Human Capital Approach to Academic and Career Advising

Leigh S. Shaffer

Reader Learning Outcomes

Human Capital Through Academic and Career Advising

Advising Activities and Techniques


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 10: Advocating for Academic Advising by Leading

Chrissy L. Davis Jones

Reader Learning Outcomes


Advisor Classifications

Leadership Development

Professional Development Plan

Master Advisor: The Influential Leader

Speaking to Be Heard: The Language of Leaders

Maintaining Motivation


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 11: Advocating for Academic Advising

Brett McFarlane and Carolyn Thomas

Reader Learning Outcomes

Barriers to Effective Advising Advocacy

Advocating for Advising


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 12: Reward Systems and Career Ladders for Advisors

Jeffrey McClellan

Reader Learning Outcomes

To the Master Advisor

Faculty and Primary-Role Advisors

Reward and Motivation

Designing Reward Systems

Identify Incentives

Design a Rewards System

Rewarding Advising Through Promotion

Career Ladders


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 13: Professional Development

Julie Givans Voller

Reader Learning Outcomes

Why Bother With Professional Development?

Charting the Path: Recognizing and Recording Professional Learning

Advisor Knowledge

Learning Strategies


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 14: Assessment of Academic Advising: Overview and Student Learning Outcomes

Rich Robbins

Reader Learning Outcomes

Assessment of Academic Advising

Overview of the Assessment Cycle


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 15: Assessment of Academic Advising: Gathering Outcome Evidence and Making Changes

Rich Robbins

Reader Learning Outcomes

Identifying Stakeholders

Outcome Measures and Data

Assessment Matrix Example

Interpreting Results

Reporting Results


Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 16: Technology and Academic Advising

George E. Steele

Reader Learning Outcomes

Using Technology to Support Advising as Teaching

Case Study: Creating an Intentional Use of Technology Plan

Intentional Use of Technology Model

Learning Outcomes and Student Learning

Technology and Program Assessment

Implications for Advisor Training and Professional Development

Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 17: External Conditions That Influence the Practice of Master Academic Advisors

Thomas J. Grites

Reader Learning Outcomes

The Completion Agenda

Legislative and Political Agendas

The Value—or Worth—of College

What Is a Master Academic Advisor to Do?

Aiming for Excellence


Chapter 18: Challenges for the Future: Developing as a Profession, Field, and Discipline

Craig M. McGill and Charlie L. Nutt

Reader Learning Outcomes

Changes in Higher Education That Transform Academic Advising

Principal Areas of Necessary Expansion

Summary: Preparing to Meet the Challenge

Aiming for Excellence


Author Index

Subject Index

End User License Agreement















































































































































































































































































































































































Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter 3: Building Upon the Components of Academic Advising to Facilitate Change

Figure 3.1 The advising pyramid

Chapter 4: Defining Academic Advising: Concepts and Contexts for Practice

Figure 4.1 Relationship between institutional, school, college, and division with program mission

Figure 4.2 Relationship among statements of vision, mission goals, and program objectives

Chapter 12: Reward Systems and Career Ladders for Advisors

Figure 12.1. Role of perception of reward on motivation

Chapter 14: Assessment of Academic Advising: Overview and Student Learning Outcomes

Figure 14.1 Maki's (2002) assessment cycle

Chapter 15: Assessment of Academic Advising: Gathering Outcome Evidence and Making Changes

Figure 15.1 Assessment of student learning outcomes in academic advising example matrix

Chapter 16: Technology and Academic Advising

Figure 16.1 Regrouping of technologies

Figure 16.2 Technology grouping showing student portal and privacy and security line

Figure 16.3 Intentional use of technology model

List of Tables

Chapter 4: Defining Academic Advising: Concepts and Contexts for Practice

Table 4.1 CAS learning and development outcomes

Table 4.2 Summary of vision, mission, goals, and program objectives statements from Campbell (2008)

Chapter 9: A Human Capital Approach to Academic and Career Advising

Table 9.1 Presenting human capital development using Gordon's (2006) model of career advising

Table 9.2 Example of expenditures for 1 and 5 years

Chapter 10: Advocating for Academic Advising by Leading

Table 10.1 Characteristics of academic advisors by Freitag's (2011) classification

Table 10.2 The French and Raven (1959) five bases of power

Table 10.3 Possible outcomes of influence tactics

Chapter 12: Reward Systems and Career Ladders for Advisors

Table 12.1. Faculty advisor awards at select U.S. colleges and universities, 2015-2016

Table 12.2. Career ladder structure at Texas A&M University (2015)

Beyond Foundations

Developing as a Master Academic Advisor


Edited byThomas J. GritesMarsha A. MillerJulie Givans Voller




Copyright © 2016 by The National Academic Advising Association. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Grites, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph), 1944- editor. | Miller, Marsha A., 1950- editor. | Givans Voller, Julie, 1969- editor.

Title: Beyond foundations : developing as a master academic advisor / [edited by] Thomas J. Grites, Marsha A. Miller and Julie G. Voler.

Description: San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass & Pfeiffer ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2016. | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016020540 (print) | LCCN 2016025635 (ebook) | ISBN 9781118922897 (cloth) | ISBN 9781118923085 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118923078 (epub)

Subjects: LCSH: Counseling in higher education.

Classification: LCC LB2343.G66 2016 (print) | LCC LB2343 (ebook) | DDC 378.1/97—dc23

LC record available at

Cover design: Wiley


This book is dedicated to all who practice academic advising at the master level and to those who aspire to achieve this level. May you use its contents to advance your advising practice, further student success, and contribute to the academic advising field.


The idea for a book explicitly for those who advise at the master level grew from discussions with Erin Null, then a staff member at Jossey-Bass. NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising began its long and productive relationship with Jossey-Bass with the development and publication of the first edition (2000) of Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook. Much has changed in the field of academic advising since 2000; as a result of discussing those changes with Erin, a three-book series took shape to address the broadening scope of advising practice.

With the publication of this book, NACADA and Jossey-Bass complete the academic advisors core resources library:

The New Advisor Guidebook: Mastering the Art of Academic Advising

(Advising 101—the informational component),

Academic Advising Approaches: Strategies That Teach Students to Make the Most of College

(Advising 201—the relational component), and

Beyond Foundations: Developing as a Master Advisor

(Advising 301—the conceptual component).

Beyond Foundations is the first of its kind: a book dedicated to those who have not only mastered the basics of the field but who wish to contribute to the professional development of academic advisors on their campuses and in academe.

We owe a debt of gratitude to a number of individuals who contributed to the production of this text. First, we thank the master advisors who reviewed the book's outline and initial chapter drafts; their insights into what master advisors need in a book (and in the field) were invaluable.


Brian Buckwald, Hunter College, City University of New York

Subhasish Dasgupta, George Washington University

Joanna Davis, University of Missouri–Kansas City

Sonia Esquivel, United States Air Force Academy

Susan Fread, Lehigh County Community College

Gayle Juneau-Butler, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Amber Kargol, Iowa State University

Shanai Lechtenberg, Linfield College

Holly Martin, University of Notre Dame

Craig M. McGill, Florida International University

Chrissy Renfro, Laramie County Community College

Maggie L. Shedian, Elon University

Fanie Zis, Alexander College

We also thank the authors for sharing their expertise. Authors are the unsung heroes of any edited book. Not only do they expend extensive time and effort crafting drafts based upon the editors' outline and their areas of expertise but they also respond to reviewer suggestions and make multiple revisions so that the content of the book is built from cover to cover. The authors met the challenge of writing to meet a variety of expectations in extraordinary fashion; they are some of the best and brightest practitioners in the advising field. Each has our undying gratitude.

We also thank the production staff who made the book possible, starting with Nancy Vesta, NACADA's copy editor extraordinaire. Nancy brought her keen eye and over 20 years of experience editing advising literature to this book. Our words cannot begin to express our thanks to Nancy. We also thank the NACADA Executive Office staff, including Executive Director Charlie Nutt, graduate research assistants Taylor Mather and Rebecca Rowlison, and Marketing Manager Bev Martin, for their support throughout two years of book production. We thank the Jossey-Bass team who picked up where Erin Null left off: Pete Gaughan, Alison Knowles, Aneesa Davenport, and Connor O'Brien (to name just a few). We value your expertise and your belief in us as editors, NACADA as an organization, and all who advise students.

Finally we thank you, the master advisor, reading this book. We trust that you will find validation for your advising practice as you acquire new ideas and strategies so you can boost student success, impact your campus, and contribute to the advising field.

Thomas J. GritesMarsha A. MillerJulie Givans Voller


Thomas J. Grites has been directly involved in the academic advising process in higher education for over 40 years. He was instrumental in forming the National Academic Advising Association and served as its second President. He has served as a consultant, program evaluator, and faculty development workshop leader on more than 100 campuses.

His publications have linked the importance of academic advising to many diverse areas within higher education. His publication, Academic Advising: Getting Us Through the Eighties, was used for academic advising program reviews for many years. He was coauthor of Developmental Academic Advising, the standard text for advisor training programs for many years. He has authored more than 70 journal articles, books, book chapters, program evaluations, and consultant reports. He has delivered over 120 conference presentations. He was coeditor of the second edition of Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook.

Grites has taught courses in general teaching methods, freshman seminar, a basic skills course in critical thinking, a graduate course on developmental academic advising at Teachers College, Columbia University, and most frequently a transfer student seminar at Stockton University. He has also served on his local board of education for over 30 years.

He is a native of Danville, Illinois. He earned his bachelor's and master's degrees from Illinois State University and a PhD from the University of Maryland. Both institutions have awarded him distinguished alumni awards; he was inducted into the College of Education Hall of Fame at Illinois State during its 150th anniversary and homecoming celebrations on October 13, 2007. Tom resides in Absecon, New Jersey.

Marsha A. Miller, a NACADA member since 1988, began her academic career as a history major at the University of Missouri, where she served as a peer advisor in the College of Education. She has graduate degrees from the University of Iowa and Emporia State University; she advised and taught at Cloud County Community College for 14 years. At Cloud, she served as chair of the faculty committee that restructured the advising program and was director of that program when it received the NACADA Advising Award and the Noel-Levitz citation for Excellence in Student Retention.

Miller has been a member of the NACADA Executive Office staff since 2002 and serves as NACADA's Assistant Director for Resources and Services. She regularly presents at conferences and publishes articles. She was coeditor (with Jayne K. Drake and Peggy Jordan) of the 2013 NACADA/Jossey-Bass book Academic Advising Approaches: Strategies That Teach Students to Make the Most of College and coauthored a chapter and glossary of terms included in the most recent NACADA/Jossey-Bass book, The New Advisor Guidebook: Mastering the Art of Academic Advising (2015). She was a coeditor of the first edition of Comprehensive Advisor Training and Development: Practices That Deliver (2009). She is managing editor for NACADA-produced books and established the NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources on the web.

In addition, Miller served as a faculty member of the NACADA Summer Institute for 9 years. She is the NACADA Director on the board of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education and answers member questions regarding advising-related concerns.

Julie Givans Voller is a research and planning strategist for the Maricopa County Community College District in Arizona. Her work supports the Maricopa Priorities initiative—a multiyear, district-wide effort to increase collaboration and promote student success and mobility in the District's 10 colleges and 2 skills centers. Previously, she served as the Director of Academic Advising, Transfer, and Assessment Services at Phoenix College (PC). At PC, the flagship college of the Maricopa District, she initiated and implemented local and district-wide innovations to improve students' experience and learning through academic advising and student affairs.

Prior to joining the Maricopa District, Givans Voller was Director of Academic Advising for the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University. As an administrator, her work focused on managing change, integrating technology into academic advising, and designing and delivering programs for advisor training and professional development.

Givans Voller's credentials include regional and national conference presentations, serving as a founding Cochair of the NACADA Pre-Law Interest Group, and membership on the Publications Advisory Board. She was a member of the executive board of the Western Association of Pre-Law Advisors. She contributed to two NACADA webinars related to advisor professional development. She has authored articles on citizenship learning through advising, professional development, and advisor reward and recognition, and was lead editor for Comprehensive Advisor Training and Development: Practices That Deliver (2009).

She earned her doctorate in Educational Leadership and Innovation from Arizona State University in 2013.


Karen L. Archambault, EdD, a long-time advocate for student success, currently serves as Executive Director of Enrollment Management at Rowan College at Burlington County, New Jersey, where she oversees recruitment, financial aid, and the registrar's office as well as several retention programs for high-risk students. In prior work experiences, she worked in areas of recruitment, advising programs, and retention as well as new student programs and faculty support. While her experience spans a wide range of functional areas, Archambault's research interests are in transfer student preparation and retention and in cross-campus efforts that support student success. She received her bachelor's degree from Salisbury University and her master's degrees from Old Dominion University and Trinity Washington University. She completed her doctorate in Educational Leadership at Rowan University.

Jennifer L. Bloom, EdD, joined the Department of Educational Leadership and Research Methodology at Florida Atlantic University in August 2015 as an associate professor and Coordinator of the Higher Education Leadership Master's Degree Program. She previously served as a clinical professor and the Director of the Master's Degree Program in the Higher Education & Student Affairs Program housed in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policies at the University of South Carolina from 2007 to 2015. Prior to this position, she served as the Associate Dean for Student Affairs and the Medical Scholars Program at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign. She earned her doctorate in Higher Education Administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1995. Bloom is a cofounder of the appreciative advising and appreciative education movements.

Susan M. Campbell earned her BS in Speech and Theatre from Ball State University, her MS in Adult Education from the University of Southern Maine, and her EdD in Higher Education Administration from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Campbell currently serves as senior advisor to the Dean for the Lowell Institute School at Northeastern University. She served as President of NACADA, has held other leadership positions within the association, and received the NACADA Virginia N. Gordon Award in 2005. She participated in the 2005 AASCU graduation rate outcomes study and on a task force for the AASCU/NASULGC Voluntary System of Accountability Project. Her publications include contributions to the NACADA Guide to Assessment in Academic Advising (2005); the 2005 NACADA monograph, Peer Advising: Intentional Connections to Support Student Learning; both editions of The Distance Learner's Guide (1999, 2004), published by Prentice Hall; and the second edition of the Academic Advising Handbook (2008) published by Jossey-Bass. She also coauthored a chapter in the 2013 NACADA/Jossey-Bass book, Academic Advising Approaches: Strategies That Teach Students to Make the Most of College.

Hilleary Himes is the Director of Advising and the Division of Undergraduate Studies Program Coordinator in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University. She earned her BA in Anthropology from Penn State, her MA, also in Anthropology, from the University of Montana, and is currently earning her doctorate in Educational Theory and Policy. Himes is an active member of the NACADA Theory, Philosophy, and History of Advising Commission, serving on the Steering Committee from 2012 to 2014, and is serving as a mentor in NACADA's Emerging Leaders Program. Her research interests include developing philosophy and theory for academic advising, understanding the influence of socioeconomic status on students' educational experiences, and the history of higher education and academic advising.

Chrissy L. Davis Jones is the Associate Dean of Student Development at Spokane Falls Community College (SFCC) in Spokane, Washington. Her responsibilities at SFCC include direct oversight of academic advising and counseling, new student orientation, placement and proctor testing services, and peer services as well as an academic early alert system. She is also actively involved with various local, state, and national organizations. She is a long-standing member of NACADA and has served on the NACADA Professional Development Committee, Awards Committee Program, the Faculty Advising Commission, and the Advisory Board as well as in a faculty position for the Administrators' Institute. She earned her bachelor's of Social Work at the University of Wyoming, a master's of Social Work from the University of Denver, and a doctorate of Education in Higher Education from the University of North Texas.

Peggy Jordan is a professor of Psychology at Oklahoma City Community College. She also served as the Director of the Center for Learning and Teaching and as a student development counselor. For the first 20 years of her professional career, Jordan worked in various state agencies and in private practice. After years of teaching clients coping skills and strategies to enhance motivation and feelings of worth, Jordan returned to the college campus with a strong belief that teaching and advising students offer them the greatest opportunities for empowerment. Jordan coauthored a chapter in the second edition of the Academic Advising Handbook (2008) and was coeditor for the NACADA monograph Advising Special Student Populations (2007). She has written for other NACADA monographs and for the NACADA Journal. Jordan served as a faculty member for the NACADA Faculty Seminar and Summer Institute and has presented numerous workshops for NACADA regional and national conferences.

Marc Lowenstein earned degrees in Philosophy from Colgate University and the University of Rochester. He taught philosophy at several institutions before shifting to a career in administration at Richard Stockton College (now Stockton University) in New Jersey. His positions there included Dean of Professional Studies and Associate Provost. He retired in 2012. Lowenstein has published a number of articles and spoken at numerous local, regional, and national conferences. His areas of interest include the ethics, the theory and philosophy, and the future of advising. In 2014, NACADA presented him with the Virginia Gordon Award for Excellence in Academic Advising.

Jeffrey McClellan is an associate professor of Management and academic advisor at Frostburg State University. He is also the Codirector of the College of Business Leadership Development Center. He earned a PhD in Leadership Studies from Gonzaga University. McClellan is a former advising administrator and an experienced consultant, trainer, and speaker. He has conducted more than 70 presentations at professional and academic conferences; facilitated or performed more than 100 professional presentations, speeches, training sessions, and consultations for numerous businesses, nonprofit organizations, and universities; and published more than 50 book reviews, articles, and chapters on leadership, administration, and advising. Most of McClellan's current work focuses on academic advising administration and on leadership, especially servant leadership and leadership in Latin America. He lives in Cumberland, Maryland, with his wife and six children.

Brett McFarlane currently serves as the Director of Academic Advising at the University of California (UC) Davis where he oversees campuswide advising initiatives, assessment of advising, advising training and professional development, advising technology advancements, and collaborative programming between academic and student affairs. Prior to taking his position at UC Davis, McFarlane served as the Director of Undergraduate Programs for the College of Engineering at Oregon State University and Director of Student Services for the School of Business at Portland State University. He holds a BS in Accounting from the University of Oregon, an MS in Postsecondary Adult and Continuing Education, and an EdD in Higher Education Leadership, both from Portland State University. His research interests focus on advising administration, student persistence, and advising assessment.

Craig M. McGill is a senior academic advisor at Florida International University. He holds master's degrees in Music Theory from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and Academic Advising from Kansas State University; he is currently pursuing his doctorate in Adult Education and Human Resource Development with cognates in Gender Studies and Higher Education. An active member of NACADA, he recently finished a three-year term as the Florida liaison, the Emerging Leaders Program, and currently is a member of the Diversity Committee, the Sustainable Leadership Committee, the Steering Committee for the Commission for LGBTQA Advising and Advocacy, the Publications Advisory Board, and the NACADA Journal Editorial Board. He has published papers on a variety of subjects in academic advising, adult education, and musical theatre studies.

Susan McWilliams is the Assistant Provost for Undergraduate Programs and Core curriculum at the University of Southern Maine (USM). In this capacity, McWilliams oversees curriculum development and assessment. She also directs the USM Office of Community Engagement and Career Development. In this capacity, she oversees staff who assist students, faculty members, and community partners with service, volunteer, and internship opportunities. McWilliams received her BA in German and Sociology from Wesleyan University in Connecticut and her PhD in Sociology from the University of Washington.

Charlie L. Nutt was appointed the Executive Director of the National Academic Advising Association in October 2007. Prior to this, he served as the Associate Director of the Association for 5 years. In addition, he was also Vice President for Student Development Services at Coastal Georgia Community College for 9 years and assistant professor of English/Director of Advisement and Orientation for 6 years. He received his AA from Brunswick College, BSEd from the University of Georgia, and MEd and EdD in Higher Educational Leadership from Georgia Southern University. Nutt has had vast experience in education. In addition to his 15 years as a teacher and administrator at Coastal Georgia Community College, where he originated the College Advisement Center and Orientation Program, which was awarded a Certificate of Merit by NACADA in 1995, he has taught English in grades 9 through 12, served as a department chair and assistant principal in a high school, and served as director of development and admission at a private K–12 institution. Presently, he teaches graduate courses in the College of Education in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Kansas State University. He has also been instrumental in the development of the NACADA/K-State Graduate Certificate in Academic Advising and several other NACADA professional development initiatives.

Rich Robbins is Associate Dean of Arts and Sciences at Bucknell University. He has developed advising programs at two institutions and headed advising programs at four institutions. He currently teaches in the Kansas State University master's program in academic advising. He has made over 150 professional presentations (including 40 on assessment) as well as dozens of campus consultations specifically on assessment of advising, and he is author or coauthor of four separate chapters on assessment of advising in various texts. His service to NACADA includes Chair of the Research Committee, member of the Council, Board of Directors, and several committees and task forces, as faculty and Chair of the Summer Institute and Assessment Institute, and as faculty for the Administrators' Institute. He is a member of the NACADA Consultants and Speakers Service and coeditor of the NACADA Journal. In 2011, Robbins received the Service to NACADA Award and also received the 2013 NACADA Virginia N. Gordon Award for Excellence in Advising.

Matthew M. Rust serves as the Director of Campus Career and Advising Services at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis. In this role, he coordinates professional development, technology incorporation, and outcomes assessment within academic advising and career development. His professional background includes academic advising, career exploration, outcomes assessment, and first-year seminar teaching. Rust earned a BA in Political Science and Philosophy/Religion from Butler University, an MS in Student Affairs in Higher Education from Miami University, and a JD cum laude from North Carolina Central University School of Law. Admitted to the North Carolina State Bar in 2011 (currently inactive), Rust regularly presents on legal issues in advising as well as liberal education and assessment. Rust currently serves on the Editorial Board of the NACADA Journal.

Janet Schulenberg earned her undergraduate degree in Biology and Anthropology from SUNY Geneseo and her MS and PhD in Anthropology from the Pennsylvania State University. She serves as Associate Director for Technology and Curriculum in the Division of Undergraduate Studies at Penn State. Prior to returning to Penn State, she was an assistant professor of Anthropology at SUNY Potsdam. Schulenberg is past Chair of the NACADA Research Committee and the Theory, History, and Philosophy of Advising Commission. She coauthored “The Historical Foundations and Scholarly Future of Academic Advising” in the 2010 NACADA monograph, Scholarly Inquiry in Academic Advising, and “Advising Is Advising: Toward Defining the Practice and Scholarship of Academic Advising” in NACADA Journal, Volume 28, Number 1.

Leigh S. Shaffer received the BA and MA degrees in Psychology from Wichita State University in 1969 and 1971, and he received the PhD in Social Psychology from the Pennsylvania State University in 1974. He is professor emeritus of Sociology, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, West Chester University. He is now retired and living in Columbia, Missouri. He has served as coeditor of the NACADA Journal since 2009. He has authored or coauthored several articles on academic and career advising from a human capital approach.

During the past 25 years, George E. Steele has presented at the NACADA Annual Conference on topics related to working with undecided students, advising theory, and use of technology in advising. He has also written more than two dozen publications addressing these topics. He has been recognized for his work by NACADA in various ways, including the Service to NACADA Award and the Virginia N. Gordon Award. In addition, he has served in a variety of NACADA leadership roles. In his professional career, Steele has served as the Executive Director of the Ohio Learning Network, an organization that assisted Ohio higher educational institutions to assess, adopt, and deploy technology for online learning and student services. Prior to this position, he directed the advising program at the Ohio State University for undecided and major-changing undergraduates. Currently, Steele is a consultant working with institutions on topics related to his interests and teaching online for The Ohio State University.

Carolyn Thomas is the Dean and Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education at the University of California (UC) Davis and a professor of American Studies. As a faculty member, she served as an undergraduate and graduate student advisor for programs in American Studies and Cultural Studies. In her administrative role, she collaborates with deans, associate deans, and advising directors to enhance advising resources and partners with the Director of Academic Advising to improve advising practices throughout the UC Davis community. She is also the former recipient of the Chancellor's Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Mentoring at UC Davis.

Beverly A. Wallace has extensive experience as a faculty advisor for graduate and undergraduate majors and undeclared students. She received a PhD and MEd in Educational Psychology from the University of Alabama and an MA in English Education (Secondary) from Southeastern Oklahoma State University. She has contributed numerous publications and presentations in the areas of student learning and motivation.

Stephen O. Wallace serves as Coordinator of Developmental Education and Advising Development at Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania. He has extensive experience in advising and student support services. He received a PhD in Educational Administration from the University of Alabama and MEd in Adult and Higher Education from the University of Oklahoma. He has published in various NACADA publications and the NADE Digest and presented at the 2008 NACADA Annual Conference.


Thomas J. Grites, Marsha A. Miller, and Julie Givans Voller

The best way to predict your future is to create it.

—Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865)

This book provides a path for the future of academic advising and those who practice it at a mastery level by

delving deeply into the foundations and development of academic advising as a significant component of higher education;

reflecting on master advisors' consistent and primary goal of fostering student success; and

examining the contexts in which master advisors practice the craft in the 21st century.

This book completes a series of joint NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising and Jossey-Bass publications, the advisor core library, that build upon Habley's (1987) work in which he delineated the components of academic advising as informational (advisor knowledge), relational (advisor communication skills and approaches), and conceptual (advisor understanding of ideas and theories) to advise students effectively. Thus the three books provide a functional curriculum for the practice, research, and scholarly inquiry that comprise academic advising. The audience for this book includes experienced advising practitioners, active researchers, engaged scholars, and the upper level administrators of these individuals. For the purpose of this book, we call this group master advisors.

The first book in the core library series, The New Advisor Guidebook: Mastering the Art of Academic Advising (Folsom, Yoder, & Joslin, 2015), explains the broad spectrum of roles, responsibilities, and the requisite skills and knowledge necessary to successfully practice as an academic advisor. The Guidebook also establishes the base of a pyramid structure (illustrated in chapter 3 of this book) that reflects the organizational and informational aspects of the advising process. It can be considered (in course numbering parlance) as Advising 101.

The second book of the core library, Academic Advising Approaches: Strategies That Teach Students to Make the Most of College (Drake, Jordan, & Miller, 2013), provides a wide range of strategies that connect academic advising approaches to the practices that have emerged since the 1970s. The Approaches book builds upon the central part of the pyramid by reflecting the relational strategies that advisors use in their craft. It is considered Advising 201.

This final volume in the series, Beyond Foundations: Developing as a Master Advisor, synthesizes advisor knowledge and beliefs about the rapidly changing world of higher education in an effort to identify, confront, and resolve the current and the impending challenges facing the field of academic advising in the near future. Beyond Foundations provides the opportunity for master advisors to create their own future. It completes the apex of the pyramid by imposing the conceptual framework that the field of academic advising needs to establish. It is considered Advising 301.

As academic advising professionals (both those whose primary role within an institution is to advise students and those who advise as part of their faculty responsibilities) look to the future, a number of unresolved, perhaps even confusing, fundamental aspects related to the advising process need to be (re)examined. The nature of the academic advising process is characterized by diversity in terms of practitioners (e.g., faculty and staff advisors), appropriate credentials for academic advisors, organizational delivery systems, types of institutions, and student clienteles, so conclusive resolutions may not—and perhaps should not—result from an examination of the individual or collective aspects of advising. Marsha A. Miller (chapter 3), Susan M. Campbell and Susan McWilliams (chapter 4), and Karen L. Archambault (chapter 6) describe these distinct elements and offer suggestions for accommodating the dilemmas they pose for the practitioner. These quandaries have created obstacles to the construction of a universally accepted definition of academic advising. Nevertheless, the concerns related to the academic advising process need to be reviewed.

Understanding the Foundation and Development of Advising

As the importance of the role of academic advising gained recognition as a visible force in higher education, a number of scholars examined the nature underlying it. Burns Crookston (1972/1994/2009) and Terry O'Banion (1972/1994/2009) raised the level of consciousness about academic advising in articles now considered classics in the advising literature. Although the importance of these concepts went unrecognized at the time, they established a cornerstone for the acknowledgment of academic advising as a significant factor in facilitating the success of college students.

As the debate over a definition grew, a number of terms appeared to describe the process, most notably theory and philosophy (described by Hilleary Himes and Janet Schulenberg in chapter 1). Subsequently, terms such as concept, approaches, and purpose appeared in the advising literature. Many of these terms are used interchangeably to describe the nature of academic advising. In the future, academic advising professionals (practitioners, researchers, and scholars) will be challenged to distinguish among these terms when using them to describe their work. For our purposes in this book, we suggest that the following differences be examined:


. While the debate about whether a unified theory of academic advising can or should exist continues (Lowenstein, 2014), the meaning of


needs to be elucidated because it currently is not used universally, varying according to traditional academic disciplines. For example, theory in the arts and humanities fields is based on beliefs and analyses of numerous phenomena used to anticipate responses, but those in the natural and social science fields seek to prove or disprove whether interactions result in specific outcomes (Lowenstein, 2014). Simply referring to a


of academic advising, without fully defining the term or context does little to advance the understanding or field of advising (Himes & Schulenberg, 2013).


. Although frequently used as a companion to




can connote different meanings, depending on the context in which it is used. An institutional philosophy (e.g., religious) may not fully comport with one's personal philosophy about specific issues. In many situations, however, one's beliefs, intentions, values, assumptions, and reflections likely enter the conversation as evidence of a personal philosophy. Furthermore, one's (personal) philosophy could, in fact, conflict with a theoretical perspective. The use of


in the absence of understood parameters could create confusing, or even conflicting, conversations.



NACADA adopted the term


in 2006 when agreement on a specific definition of academic advising could not be reached (NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising [NACADA], 2006). This broader term suggested a fundamental idea, description, or understanding that enhanced certain specific explanations. Those drawn to this term must recognize and acknowledge whether it is used in reference to the NACADA Concept of Academic Advising (NACADA, 2006) or in a more generalized way.


. The editors of the second book of the series intentionally chose this term for the title (Drake et al., 2013, p. xi) and specified that the approaches described therein are derived from various theories and employ certain strategies for implementing each approach. In

chapter 2

, Peggy Jordan has presented enhanced applications of several major theories.

Understanding the Goal of Advising: Student Success

The ultimate goal of every academic advisor seems clear: Help each student achieve his or her own success. Upon deeper inspection, the goal seems elusive: What does success mean? Who decides when success is achieved? Does a student's success reflect the behaviors or characteristics of advisors, advising programs, or institutions? To clarify the roles and importance of advising in higher education, questions on the meaning of success require answers in the not-so-distant future. In chapter 5, Stephen A. Wallace and Beverly O. Wallace explore success and offer suggestions for resolving the confusion that has emerged in the discussion of it.

The higher education agenda in the United States offers a clear answer to all the questions on success: graduation rates. More recently, the goal has evolved to include part-time and transfer students who graduate from college but not necessarily from the institution of initial enrollment. However, these performance measures do not recognize students who do not claim graduation as their sole criterion for success or those with goals that do not include a degree or certificate. No one knows the number of students who fall into these categories. Furthermore, no systematic means of ascertaining the goals for nondegree students has been established, which certainly precludes any ability to determine whether they had achieved their educational goals before they left college.

Perhaps more alarming than the latest definition bestowed on higher education, student success is rarely defined in the literature or in the programs designed to result in this outcome. Graduation is presumed to be the criterion for student success, and it is rapidly becoming a surrogate for institutional success or failure. If graduation is the proxy for success, then the role of academic advising is defined: Get students graduated! However, this characterization of the advising role and related edicts often comes from those unaffiliated with higher education institutions. Furthermore, advisors may be held accountable for ensuring that students graduate. Academic advising advocates have been quick to take some credit for improved retention rates, but are they ready to accept some responsibility for unmet graduation criteria?

Each academic advisor must appreciate the meaning attached to student success by campus, unit, and advisor. In his description of the human capital approach to career advising in chapter 9, Leigh S. Shaffer extends the call for clarity and development to students. Rather than succumb to the default criterion (graduation), advisors must determine, accept, and monitor alternative measures to demonstrate the success of the unit or the institution. Some may set the bar for success through measures of student satisfaction with the institution and the academic advising provided; completion of the student goals specified upon matriculation, with documentation of reasons for noncompletion as indicated by the students; established student learning outcomes; or postattendance behaviors such as transferring, attending graduate school, or entering the workplace. For example, a student who plans to transfer to another program or institution meets the criterion (i.e., demonstrates success) when she or he changes programs or colleges, not when an external party says the student has succeeded. In chapter 17, Thomas J. Grites encourages master advisors to monitor various sources and conditions that could create challenges in the future, and in chapters 14 and 15, Rich Robbins provides assessment strategies critical to documenting the establishment and achievement of specific advising goals.

Understanding the Master Advisor Concept

In selecting the title for this book, we created our own challenge: Determine the characteristics of a master academic advisor. We looked at various descriptors for this term—one qualified to teach, one with consummate skill, one whose work serves as a model, one having authority, and so forth—and we determined that all the descriptors probably apply to academic advisors who aspire to earn such a distinction. Although we were confronted with the diverse nature of the field of academic advising, we call for further exploration of the criteria for master advisor recognition. Such a distinction will affect the future of academic advising as a profession, field, and discipline that can be studied. In chapter 7, Marc Lowenstein and Jennifer L. Bloom provide a strong foundation for understanding professionalism.

Because of the rapid changes in higher education over the last few years, academic advisors must lead, adapt, and produce results. Identifying and developing influential leaders cannot be left to chance, and master advisors must exert their leadership qualities. Brett McFarlane and Carolyn Thomas (chapter 11) describe a number of efforts that master advisors use to advocate for change on their campuses, including building coalitions, providing intentional professional development efforts, and garnering the support of upper level administrators.

The provision of a set of criteria by which individuals seek and receive acknowledgment for status as master advisors is addressed by Chrissy L. Davis Jones (chapter 10), who explains that those assuming a leadership role must also demonstrate

up-to-date knowledge of the overall higher education landscape,

understanding of the literature and research in academic advising,

appropriate application of institutional policies and knowledge about their effects on the academic advising process,

ability to articulate the rationale behind and proposals for enhancing the academic advising program, and

engagement with professional development activities that have improved the ability to lead.

In chapter 12, Jeffrey McClellan explains current and desirable rewards and career ladders that motivate and retain master advisors. In chapter 13, Julie Givans Voller describes numerous professional development approaches for advisors that support their aspirations to become master advisors.

Folsom et al. (2015) provided a comprehensive description of the specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors that meet the criteria for their foundational mastery of advisor development. In this volume, Matthew M. Rust (chapter 8) addresses critical legal issues confronted by master advisors, and George E. Steele (chapter 16) shares a model for master advisors to harness technology that supports academic advising as a teaching.

Since the inception of NACADA in 1979, scholars and practitioners alike have struggled with the term professional advisor. Many who advise students as their primary function and those who have become academic advising administrators understand the term. However, many have criticized it because it seems to exclude the many excellent faculty advisors and may even suggest that faculty members who advise do not subscribe to the same high standards of practice as those specifically hired to advise students.

As the editors of Beyond Foundations, we have taken the position that the preferred term for the group of academic advisors who spend the majority of their time in direct academic advising or advising-related activities (managing, assessing, training, advocating, etc.) should be primary-role advisors. This term clearly delineates this group from the faculty members who advise but whose primary role is teaching. We are further emboldened to use this term because the NACADA Awards Program began using the term primary role in 2001 (along with secondary role) and subsequently recognized excellent faculty advisors in a separate category, as first seen with the Outstanding Advising Award winners in 2002.

We also confronted the long-standing debate on the distinction (or not) of academic advising as a profession. We assert that those engaged in academic advising are members of a profession. Authors, researchers, presenters, and practitioners in academic advising frequently use this term rather freely, regardless of the debate surrounding it. Lawyers, landscapers, and lyricists are members of their professions, and we contend that advisors should think no less of themselves. Therefore, we asked our authors to use this term to reinforce our affirmation. Craig M. McGill and Charlie L. Nutt, in the final chapter (18) of this book, address the current and future state of this debate.

Finally, in discussions and in the literature, advisors use the term field of academic advising, and we encourage the continued use of it. Academic advising as a field refers to the continued expansion of research and literature that advances advisors' work and influence. We contrast field of academic advising with the term academic advising discipline. Academic disciplines incorporate the research and literature within a field into the subjects taught and studied within graduate programs, and those in a discipline espouse “theories and concepts that can organize the accumulated specialist knowledge effectively” (Krishnan, 2009, p. 9). To meet this articulated standard, the field needs to establish at least one theory of academic advising. The difficult task of establishing an organized academic advising theory was delineated by Lowenstein (2014) and is acknowledged in McGill and Nutt's chapter.

With this book, we provide the rationale and direction for moving practitioners beyond the fundamental roles of academic advisors to become campus advocates, leaders, researchers, and scholars within the field; in so doing, advisors can become a research-based discipline worthy of doctorate programs. Through well-conceived statements and explanations about advising practice, strategies, and concepts, the profession will gain recognition for advisor contributions to higher education and student success—however it is defined.


Crookston, B. B. (2009). 1994 (1972): A developmental view of academic advising as teaching.

NACADA Journal,


(1), 78–82. (Reprinted from

Journal of College Student Personnel, 13

, 1972, pp. 12–17;

NACADA Journal, 14

[2], 1994, pp. 5–9)

Drake, J. K., Jordan, P., & Miller, M. A. (Eds.). (2013).

Academic advising approaches: Strategies that teach students to make the most of college

. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Folsom, P., Yoder, F., & Joslin. J. E. (Eds.). (2015).

The new advisor guidebook: Mastering the art of academic advising

. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Habley, W. R. (1987).

Academic advising conference: Outline and notes

. The ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices (pp. 33–34). Iowa City, IA: ACT. Retrieved from

Himes, H., & Schulenberg, J. (2013).

Theoretical reflections: Theory and philosophy should always inform practice

. Retrieved from Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/Theoretical-Reflections-Theory-and-Philosophy-Should-Always-Inform-Practice.aspx#sthash.5EiItAXH.dpuf

Krishnan, A. (2009).

What are academic disciplines? Some observations on the disciplinarity vs. interdisciplinary debate

. United Kingdom: University of Southampton and ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. Retrieved from

Lowenstein, M. (2014, August 12). Toward a theory of advising.

The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal

. Retrieved from

NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising. (2006).

The NACADA concept of academic advising

. Retrieved from

O'Banion, T. (2009). 1994 (1972): An academic advising model.

NACADA Journal,


(1), 83–89. (Reprinted from

Junior College Journal, 42

, 1972, pp. 62, 63, 66–69;

NACADA Journal, 14

[2], 1994, pp. 10–16)


Hilleary Himes and Janet Schulenberg

Study the past if you would define the future.

—Confucius (551–479 BC)

Those who wish to effect change in the role and status of academic advising within higher education need an understanding of the structural obstacles to and opportunities for innovation. We provide an overview of the history of the academic advising field with particular focus on areas with lasting ramifications for status and practice. In tracing the history of academic advising from a structuration perspective, we found three important influential trends: expansion of the purposes for attending higher education, the emergence of academic disciplines and their influence in knowledge generation, and changes in theoretical perspectives and perceived roles of academic advising.

Reader Learning Outcomes

From studying this chapter, advisors will use knowledge gained on the history of advising to

identify several influences on the development of academic advising in the United States,

select participation opportunities that may influence future change, and

explain implicit and explicit structures of the institutional system and their relationship to the local and global history of academic advising.

Over the past two centuries, academic advising has emerged as an increasingly important component of higher education. Attention to the purposes, guiding principles, and outcomes of advising has increased, and as the field matures, practitioners increasingly view advising as a profession. In line with this movement, master academic advisors must gain an understanding of the ways the history of advising affects their daily interactions with students and the role of practice within higher education. Further, those who wish to effect change need to know the structures and roles that create obstacles to and opportunities for innovation. This chapter provides an overview of the history of the academic advising field with particular focus on areas with lasting ramifications on status and practice.

Scholars have divided the history of academic advising into four eras:

Prior to 1870, academic advising was a largely unrecognized activity.

Between 1870 and 1970, the role of academic advising was recognized, but remained largely unexamined by both practitioners and other stakeholders.

Between 1970 and 2003, academic advising gained greater recognition and examination by practitioners (Frost, 2000; Kuhn, 2008).

From 2003 to present, academic advising practitioners attempt to intentionally clarify and convey the role of advising, including that of advising as a profession (Cate & Miller, 2015).

A current focus of advising scholarship is on illuminating the distinctive role of advising in higher education and elevating it in the eyes of others, such as higher education administrators, students, and the general public (Schulenberg & Lindhorst, 2008; Shaffer, Zalewski, & Leveille, 2010). The historical development of the field sheds light on the reasons that those in higher education, including those who advise students, do not consistently value the practice or the expertise of advisors. It also points toward opportunities for change.