Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems -  - E-Book

Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems E-Book

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Neuromorphic electronic engineering takes its inspiration fromthe functioning of nervous systems to build more power efficientelectronic sensors and processors. Event-based neuromorphic systemsare inspired by the brain's efficient data-driven communicationdesign, which is key to its quick responses and remarkablecapabilities. This cross-disciplinary text establishes howcircuit building blocks are combined in architectures to constructcomplete systems. These include vision and auditory sensors as wellas neuronal processing and learning circuits that implement modelsof nervous systems. Techniques for building multi-chip scalable systems areconsidered throughout the book, including methods for dealing withtransistor mismatch, extensive discussions of communication andinterfacing, and making systems that operate in the real world. Thebook also provides historical context that helps relate thearchitectures and circuits to each other and that guides readers tothe extensive literature. Chapters are written by founding expertsand have been extensively edited for overall coherence. This pioneering text is an indispensable resource for practicingneuromorphic electronic engineers, advanced electrical engineeringand computer science students and researchers interested inneuromorphic systems. Key features: * Summarises the latest design approaches, applications, andfuture challenges in the field of neuromorphic engineering. * Presents examples of practical applications of neuromorphicdesign principles. Covers address-event communication, retinas, cochleas,locomotion, learning theory, neurons, synapses, floating gatecircuits, hardware and software infrastructure, algorithms, andfuture challenges.

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Edited by

Shih-Chii Liu Tobi Delbruck Giacomo Indiveri Adrian Whatley Rodney Douglas

University of Zürich and ETH Zürich Switzerland

This edition first published 2015 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data applied for.

ISBN: 9780470018491

This book is dedicated to the memories of Misha Mahowald, Jörg Kramer, and Paul Mueller.


List of Contributors



List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Origins and Historical Context

1.2 Building Useful Neuromorphic Systems


Part I: Understanding Neuromorphic Systems

Chapter 2: Communication

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Address-Event Representation

2.3 Considerations for AER Link Design

2.4 The Evolution of AER Links

2.5 Discussion



Chapter 3: Silicon Retinas

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biological Retinas

3.3 Silicon Retinas with Serial Analog Output

3.4 Asynchronous Event-Based Pixel Output Versus Synchronous Frames

3.5 AER Retinas

3.6 Silicon Retina Pixels

3.7 New Specifications for Silicon Retinas

3.8 Discussion


Chapter 4: Silicon Cochleas

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Cochlea Architectures

4.3 Spike-Based Cochleas

4.4 Tree Diagram

4.5 Discussion


Chapter 5: Locomotion Motor Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Modeling Neural Circuits in Locomotor Control

5.3 Neuromorphic CPGs at Work

5.4 Discussion


Chapter 6: Learning in Neuromorphic Systems

6.1 Introduction: Synaptic Connections, Memory, and Learning

6.2 Retaining Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.3 Storing Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.4 Toward Associative Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.5 Attractor States in a Neuromorphic Chip

6.6 Discussion


Part II: Building Neuromorphic Systems

Chapter 7: Silicon Neurons

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Silicon Neuron Circuit Blocks

7.3 Silicon Neuron Implementations

7.4 Discussion


Chapter 8: Silicon Synapses

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Silicon Synapse Implementations

8.3 Dynamic Plastic Synapses

8.4 Discussion


Chapter 9: Silicon Cochlea Building Blocks

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Voltage-Domain Second-Order Filter

9.3 Current-Domain Second-Order Filter

9.4 Exponential Bias Generation

9.5 The Inner Hair Cell Model

9.6 Discussion


Chapter 10: Programmable and Configurable Analog Neuromorphic ICs

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Floating-Gate Circuit Basics

10.3 Floating-Gate Circuits Enabling Capacitive Circuits

10.4 Modifying Floating-Gate Charge

10.5 Accurate Programming of Programmable Analog Devices

10.6 Scaling of Programmable Analog Approaches

10.7 Low-Power Analog Signal Processing

10.8 Low-Power Comparisons to Digital Approaches: Analog Computing in Memory

10.9 Analog Programming at Digital Complexity: Large-Scale Field Programmable Analog Arrays

10.10 Applications of Complex Analog Signal Processing

10.11 Discussion


Chapter 11: Bias Generator Circuits

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Bias Generator Circuits

11.3 Overall Bias Generator Architecture Including External Controller

11.4 Typical Characteristics

11.5 Design Kits

11.6 Discussion


Chapter 12: On-Chip AER Communication Circuits

12.1 Introduction

12.2 AER Transmitter Blocks

12.3 AER Receiver Blocks

12.4 Discussion



Chapter 13: Hardware Infrastructure

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Hardware Infrastructure Boards for Small Systems

13.3 Medium-Scale Multichip Systems

13.4 FPGAs

13.5 Discussion



Chapter 14: Software Infrastructure

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Chip and System Description Software

14.3 Configuration Software

14.4 Address Event Stream Handling Software

14.5 Mapping Software

14.6 Software Examples

14.7 Discussion



Chapter 15: Algorithmic Processing of Event Streams

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Requirements for Software Infrastructure

15.3 Embedded Implementations

15.4 Examples of Algorithms

15.5 Discussion



Chapter 16: Towards Large-Scale Neuromorphic Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Large-Scale System Examples

16.3 Discussion


Chapter 17: The Brain as Potential Technology

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Nature of Neuronal Computation: Principles of Brain Technology

17.3 Approaches to Understanding Brains

17.4 Some Principles of Brain Construction and Function

17.5 An Example Model of Neural Circuit Processing

17.6 Toward Neuromorphic Cognition



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List of Tables

Chapter 2

Table 2.1

Chapter 3

Table 3.1

Chapter 8

Table 8.1

Chapter 16

Table 16.1