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Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems E-Book

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Neuromorphic electronic engineering takes its inspiration fromthe functioning of nervous systems to build more power efficientelectronic sensors and processors. Event-based neuromorphic systemsare inspired by the brain's efficient data-driven communicationdesign, which is key to its quick responses and remarkablecapabilities. This cross-disciplinary text establishes howcircuit building blocks are combined in architectures to constructcomplete systems. These include vision and auditory sensors as wellas neuronal processing and learning circuits that implement modelsof nervous systems. Techniques for building multi-chip scalable systems areconsidered throughout the book, including methods for dealing withtransistor mismatch, extensive discussions of communication andinterfacing, and making systems that operate in the real world. Thebook also provides historical context that helps relate thearchitectures and circuits to each other and that guides readers tothe extensive literature. Chapters are written by founding expertsand have been extensively edited for overall coherence. This pioneering text is an indispensable resource for practicingneuromorphic electronic engineers, advanced electrical engineeringand computer science students and researchers interested inneuromorphic systems. Key features: * Summarises the latest design approaches, applications, andfuture challenges in the field of neuromorphic engineering. * Presents examples of practical applications of neuromorphicdesign principles. Covers address-event communication, retinas, cochleas,locomotion, learning theory, neurons, synapses, floating gatecircuits, hardware and software infrastructure, algorithms, andfuture challenges.

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EVENT-BASED NEUROMORPHIC SYSTEMS

Edited by

Shih-Chii Liu Tobi Delbruck Giacomo Indiveri Adrian Whatley Rodney Douglas

University of Zürich and ETH Zürich Switzerland

This edition first published 2015 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com.

The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data applied for.

ISBN: 9780470018491

This book is dedicated to the memories of Misha Mahowald, Jörg Kramer, and Paul Mueller.

CONTENTS

List of Contributors

Foreword

Acknowledgments

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Origins and Historical Context

1.2 Building Useful Neuromorphic Systems

References

Part I: Understanding Neuromorphic Systems

Chapter 2: Communication

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Address-Event Representation

2.3 Considerations for AER Link Design

2.4 The Evolution of AER Links

2.5 Discussion

References

Notes

Chapter 3: Silicon Retinas

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biological Retinas

3.3 Silicon Retinas with Serial Analog Output

3.4 Asynchronous Event-Based Pixel Output Versus Synchronous Frames

3.5 AER Retinas

3.6 Silicon Retina Pixels

3.7 New Specifications for Silicon Retinas

3.8 Discussion

References

Chapter 4: Silicon Cochleas

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Cochlea Architectures

4.3 Spike-Based Cochleas

4.4 Tree Diagram

4.5 Discussion

References

Chapter 5: Locomotion Motor Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Modeling Neural Circuits in Locomotor Control

5.3 Neuromorphic CPGs at Work

5.4 Discussion

References

Chapter 6: Learning in Neuromorphic Systems

6.1 Introduction: Synaptic Connections, Memory, and Learning

6.2 Retaining Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.3 Storing Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.4 Toward Associative Memories in Neuromorphic Hardware

6.5 Attractor States in a Neuromorphic Chip

6.6 Discussion

References

Part II: Building Neuromorphic Systems

Chapter 7: Silicon Neurons

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Silicon Neuron Circuit Blocks

7.3 Silicon Neuron Implementations

7.4 Discussion

References

Chapter 8: Silicon Synapses

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Silicon Synapse Implementations

8.3 Dynamic Plastic Synapses

8.4 Discussion

References

Chapter 9: Silicon Cochlea Building Blocks

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Voltage-Domain Second-Order Filter

9.3 Current-Domain Second-Order Filter

9.4 Exponential Bias Generation

9.5 The Inner Hair Cell Model

9.6 Discussion

References

Chapter 10: Programmable and Configurable Analog Neuromorphic ICs

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Floating-Gate Circuit Basics

10.3 Floating-Gate Circuits Enabling Capacitive Circuits

10.4 Modifying Floating-Gate Charge

10.5 Accurate Programming of Programmable Analog Devices

10.6 Scaling of Programmable Analog Approaches

10.7 Low-Power Analog Signal Processing

10.8 Low-Power Comparisons to Digital Approaches: Analog Computing in Memory

10.9 Analog Programming at Digital Complexity: Large-Scale Field Programmable Analog Arrays

10.10 Applications of Complex Analog Signal Processing

10.11 Discussion

References

Chapter 11: Bias Generator Circuits

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Bias Generator Circuits

11.3 Overall Bias Generator Architecture Including External Controller

11.4 Typical Characteristics

11.5 Design Kits

11.6 Discussion

References

Chapter 12: On-Chip AER Communication Circuits

12.1 Introduction

12.2 AER Transmitter Blocks

12.3 AER Receiver Blocks

12.4 Discussion

References

Note

Chapter 13: Hardware Infrastructure

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Hardware Infrastructure Boards for Small Systems

13.3 Medium-Scale Multichip Systems

13.4 FPGAs

13.5 Discussion

References

Notes

Chapter 14: Software Infrastructure

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Chip and System Description Software

14.3 Configuration Software

14.4 Address Event Stream Handling Software

14.5 Mapping Software

14.6 Software Examples

14.7 Discussion

References

Notes

Chapter 15: Algorithmic Processing of Event Streams

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Requirements for Software Infrastructure

15.3 Embedded Implementations

15.4 Examples of Algorithms

15.5 Discussion

References

Note

Chapter 16: Towards Large-Scale Neuromorphic Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Large-Scale System Examples

16.3 Discussion

References

Chapter 17: The Brain as Potential Technology

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Nature of Neuronal Computation: Principles of Brain Technology

17.3 Approaches to Understanding Brains

17.4 Some Principles of Brain Construction and Function

17.5 An Example Model of Neural Circuit Processing

17.6 Toward Neuromorphic Cognition

References

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Tables

Chapter 2

Table 2.1

Chapter 3

Table 3.1

Chapter 8

Table 8.1

Chapter 16

Table 16.1