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Microbial Proteomics: Development in Technologies and Applications E-Book

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This volume brings current knowledge of proteomics technologies and related developments with special reference to diseases caused by microbes. The editor has compiled chapters written by expert academicians which distill the information about useful methods in microbial proteomics for the benefit of readers. Chapters cover several methods used to investigate the microbial proteome and special topics such as antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms, biomarker developments, post translational modifications.

Key Features:
-overview of several biochemical methods in proteomics
-full-color, high quality images of the most frequent technologies and applications
-concise, well organized, and didactic format
-updates in basic applied information
-bibliographic references
-information on proteomics for tuberculosis treatment

This reference work is intended for researchers seeking information on laboratory techniques applied in proteomics research and microbiology.

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Table of Contents
BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD.
End User License Agreement (for non-institutional, personal use)
Usage Rules:
Disclaimer:
Limitation of Liability:
General:
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
FOREWORD
About the Editor
DEDICATION
List of Contributors
Microbial Biofilm and Drug Resistance: A Proteomic Approach
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
The Process of Biofilm Formation
Attachment
Micro-Colony Formation
Detachment
Mechanism of Biofilm Resistance against Antimicrobials
Limited Penetration of Drugs Due to Glycocalyx
Enzyme-Mediated Resistance
State of Metabolism and Rate of Growth in Biofilms
Genetic Adaptations
Efflux Pumps
Quorum Sensing
TARGET PROTEINS TO STUDY BIOFILM
Proteins Involved in Cellular Metabolism
Transporter Proteins
Stress-responsive Proteins
Proteomic Techniques to Study Biofilm
Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)
Isotope-coded Affinity Tags (ICAT)
Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)
Tandem Mass Tags (TMT)
Isotope-coded Protein Label (ICPL)
Bioorthogonal Noncanonical Amino Acid Tagging (BONCAT)
Future Prospectus
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Past, Present, and Future of Gel-Based Microbial Proteomics
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
PROTEIN SAMPLE PREPARATION FROM MICROBIAL SOURCE
CLEAN-UP AND QUANTIFICATION OF PROTEINS
GEL ELECTROPHORESIS OF PROTEINS
TYPES OF PAGE
SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis)
Tricine SDS-PAGE
Native Page
SDD-AGE (Semi Denaturing Detergent-agarose Gel Electrophoresis)
2D-PAGE (Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis)
Isoelectric Focusing (First Dimension)
SDS-PAGE (Second Dimension)
SDS-PAGE Procedure Steps After Completion of IEF
2D-DIGE (TWO DIMENSIONAL DIFFERENCE IN-GEL ELECTROPHORESIS)
ANALYSIS OF 2D GEL AND DIGE GEL BY DIFFERENT SOFTWARE
2D Gel Analysis using Image Master 2D Platinum
Evaluation of DIGE Gels using DeCyder
COMPARISON BETWEEN IEF, SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE, AND DIGE
MICROBIAL PROTEOMICS IN DAIRY PROCESSING
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES OF GEL BASED MICROBIAL PROTEOMICS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS): An Advanced Tool for the Microbial Proteomics Analysis
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
MASS SPECTROSCOPY (MS)
Shotgun MS-Based Proteomics
Shotgun MS-Based Quantitative Proteomics
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
i. Sample Preparation
ii. Mass Spectrometry
DATA ACCOMPLISHMENT
PROTEIN IDENTIFICATION
USE OF MALDI-TOF IN MICROBIAL IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Functional Annotation and Enrichment of Microbial Proteins Using Systems Biology: Tools and Applications
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANCE OF ANNOTATION AND ENRICHMENT
EMERGING TRENDS IN GENOMICS
EMERGING TRENDS IN PROTEOMICS
Annotation of microbial proteins
SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND ANNOTATIONS
Future guidelines
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Emerging Paradigm of Post-translational Modifications in Microbes: An Undefeatable Weapon
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
What are the General Characteristics of Bacteria and the Significance of the Study?
What are the Post-translation Modifications?
The Biological Significance of Post Translation Modifications and their Implications
PTM Stories Unfolded in Some Pathogenic Organisms
Role of PTMs in Host-pathogen Interactions
PTM Role in Drug Resistance
Mechanisms of Bacterial Drug Resistance
Different PTMs Present in Bacteria
Acetylation
Phosphorylation
Hydroxylation
Lipidation
AMPylation
ADP-Ribosylation
Glycosylation
Carboxylation
Nitrosylation
Protein Pupylation and ubiquitin- like Modifications
Proteomic Approaches Used in Exploration of Microbial PTMs
Technical Challenges in the PTM Which Needs Immediate Attention
The Lessons Learned from the Past and Giving Way to Future Solutions
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Pupylation: A Novel Proteolysis Pathway in Prokaryotes Functionally Reminiscent to Eukaryotic Ubiquitination
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Bacterial Proteasome: An Evolutionary Precursor of Eukaryotic Proteasome
Structure – Mycobacterium Proteasome
Mpa –Mycobacterium Proteasome ATPase
Pupylation –Mark of Intrinsic Protein Demolition
Reversed Pupylation –Depupylation
Recycling of Pup – Proteasome Regulation
Pup-proteasome System (PPS) – Bacterial Physiology
Proteasome – Stress Sensor Machine
Cpa (Cdc48-like protein of actinobacteria) –A Novel Proteasome Interacting Molecule
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Overview and Challenges in Proteins Sample Preparation for 2-DGE in Bacterial Proteomics
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Overview, Challenges and Probable Solutions
Enrichment and Extraction of the Complete Proteome from Bacteria
Protein Precipitation Strategies
SDS-Tri Chloroacetic Acid (TCA)-Acetone Precipitation for Cell Lysate and Cytosolic Proteins
Acetone Precipitation for Cell Lysate and Cytosolic Proteins
Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation for Secretory/Culture Filtrate Proteins
SDS-Tri Chloroacetic Acid (TCA)-Acetone Precipitation for Secretory/Culture Filtrate Proteins
Isolation and Fractionation of Cell Membranes Proteins through Ultracentrifugation
Effective Enrichment and Fractionation of Lipophilic Proteins without Ultracentrifugation
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Proteomics Based Biomarker Development Against Infections: An Overview
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Proteins and Their Role in Infectious Diseases
Life is the Mode of Action of Proteins - Friedrich Engels [1]
Techniques Used for Studying Protein-protein Interactions (PPI)
In Silico Methods for Studying Protein-protein Interactions
A Note on Biomarkers and Their Role in Infectious Diseases
Challenges in Studying Protein-protein Interactions
Protein Markers in Bacterial and Viral Infections – Pathogen and Host Perspectives
Influenza
Hepatitis C
Dengue
Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
Search for Protein Markers in Bacterial Infections – Host and Pathogen Perspectives
Use of Bacterial Markers for Typing Bacteria
Determining Antibiotic Resistance
Proteomics in Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics
Biomarkers in Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Diseases
THE WAY AHEAD – FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Microbial Metalloproteome: Approaches and Biomedical Application in Microbial Antibiotics Resistance
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
EMERGENCE OF METALLOPROTEOMICS
CURRENT APPROACHES TO METALLOPROTEOMICS
ROLE OF METALLOPROTEINS IN MICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE
METAL INDUCIBLE MICROBIAL PROTEOME AND HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION
TARGETING METALLOPROTEINS TO TARGET MICROBE
CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE ASPECTS
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Proteomics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: An Overview
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Advancement of Mycobacterial Research through Proteomics
PROTEOMICS AND PHYSIOLOGY OF M. tuberculosis
Identification of New Enzymes
New Substrates
New Metabolic Pathways
PROTEOMICS IN DEVELOPING NOVEL BIOMARKERS
PROTEOMICS AND VACCINE DISCOVERY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
PATHWAY OF TB VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
PROTEOMICS AND HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION
Host Cells and Environments for M. tuberculosis
PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS-INFECTED CELLS
PROTEOMICS AND STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY
STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DISCOVERY
Relationship between Proteomics and Genomics
Utility of Proteomics in Drug Discovery
CONCLUSION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Proteome Based Insights in Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS
CLINICALLY RELEVANT MTB PROTEINS
Antigens of 85 Complex
Mpt64
ESAT-6 and CFP-10
PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS IN MYCOBACTERIA
Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
Western Blotting
Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay
Immunohistochemistry
Mass Spectrometry
Isotope-coded Affinity Tag Labeling
Stable Isotope Labeling by/with Amino Acids in Cell Culture
Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation
X-ray Crystallography
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
PROSPECTIVE DIRECTION
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Current and Future Developments in Proteomics
(Volume 1)
Microbial Proteomics: Development in Technologies and Applications
Edited by
Divakar Sharma
Kusuma School of Biological Sciences
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
India

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PREFACE

We are honored to contribute to the information and updates on current and future developments in proteomics for young researchers around the world. We have attempted to distill the current knowledge of proteomics technologies and development with special reference to microbe’s related diseases. This volume of e-book includes various contributors from India which have been affiliated to the well known Indian Institutes.

It is divided into three volumes: Volume I, Microbial Proteomics: Development in technologies and applications; Volume II, and Volume III, will be proposed in the near future. This eBook contains full-color, high quality images of the most frequent technologies and applications with a brief and comprehensive review of microbe related diseases. Each chapter includes its novelty towards the development of proteomics technologies and applications. The format is concise, well organized, and didactic, without being exhaustive. I hope and expect that this volume will facilitate in providing updated basic and specific information to young researchers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to the Indian proteomics experts (Dr. Deepa Bisht, Prof. Sanjeeva Srivastava, Dr. Suman Thakur, and Prof. Bishwajit Kundu), they provided me a positive attitude to think out of the box and sustainable support with English composition and edition. I also acknowledge Dr. Srikanth Tripathy, Dr. Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Dr. Nirmala Deo, Dr. Shripad A. Patil, and Prof. Asad U. Khan for their positive support. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to my friends and colleagues without whose contribution; it would not have been possible to complete this project. I also want to thank the staff of Bentham Science for their help and support and giving me this opportunity to publish this eBook. I also thanks the ICMR and SERB for providing funds and fellowships for my research.

Divakar Sharma Kusuma School of Biological Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi India

FOREWORD

Dr. Divakar Sharma is intending to deliver a very useful work in the form of E-book Volume I entitled “Microbial Proteomics: Development in Technologies and Applications”, in the E-book series “Current and Future Developments in Proteomics”, a collection of chapters on recent development on microbial proteomics related to technologies and diseases. The editor has recruited a vast array of proteomics and microbial specialists from India to write the different chapters that constitute this volume. The chapters are structured in such a way that the reader may easily find recent developments about proteomic technologies and its application to combat the microbes related to current issues, especially on antimicrobial resistance and M.tuberculosis. I am sure proteomics and microbiological researchers will find this compilation useful and enjoyable.

I wish editor and authors’ good luck for their contributions in delivering this very timely book.

Sanjeeva Srivastava Group Head of Proteomics Laboratory Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay India

About the Editor

Presently, Dr. Divakar Sharma is a Principal Project Scientist at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India. He has completed his M.S. degree in Biotechnology from Chatrapati Sahu Ji Maharaj University Kanpur, India and a Ph.D. degree in Biotechnology from the Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India, as well as ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India. He has completed Two-Post Doctoral Fellowships research at ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India (2015-2017) and Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (2017-2019). After completion of the Post Doctoral Fellowships, he joined the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India as a Principal Project Scientist. He is an active Proteomics Researcher in the Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) for the last 12 years. His research focuses on drug resistance exploration of M.tuberculosis and opportunistic pathogens through proteomics and bioinformatics based approaches. His contribution to this field includes more than 50 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters of international repute. He is the editorial board member for various visible journals of international repute affiliated to the well-known publishers like Bentham Science, BMC, Frontiers, and many more. He is also an expert’s panelist member of several international journals. Apart from that, he is a life member of various societies in India like Proteomics Society of India, Indian Society for Mass Spectrometry, and Association of Microbiologist of India.

DEDICATION

This volume of the Ebook series is especially dedicated to Dr. Deepa Bisht, Ph.D., Scientist E, at ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India. She always inspires me to work hard, try to do my best, and think out of the box. She guided me during my doctoral and post doctoral research; and has been my mentor and treats me in a friendly manner. She is a recognized Indian scientist in the area of M. tuberculosis proteomics research.
Divakar Sharma Kusuma School of Biological Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi India

List of Contributors

Parashar Abhishek, Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaArya Aditya, Centre for bioinformatics, computational and systems biologyPathfinder Research and Training FoundationGreater Noida, Uttar PradeshIndiaSingh Amit, Department of MicrobiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesSaket Nagar, BhopalIndiaAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndiaMaurya Anand Kumar, Department of MicrobiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesBhopalIndiaMathur Ankita, Mewar UniversityGangrar, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, 312901IndiaGupta Anil Kumar, Department of MicrobiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesSaket Nagar, BhopalIndiaNarain Apoorva, Department of Respiratory MedicineKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndiaSharma Arpana, Central University of GujaratGandhinagarIndiaMehsana Urban Institute of sciences, Department of BiotechnologyGanpat UniversityKherva, 384012IndiaVerma Arvind K., Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaMohanty Ashok K., Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaSingh Chandrajeet, Central University of GujaratGandhinagarIndiaBisht Deepa, Department of BiochemistryNational JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial DiseasesTajganj, Agra 282004IndiaSharma Divakar, Kusuma School of Biological SciencesIndian Institute of TechnologyDelhiIndiaRaval Gopika, Mehsana Urban Institute of sciences, Department of BiotechnologyGanpat UniversityKherva, 384012IndiaSharma Juhi, Department of Botany and MicrobiologySt. Aloysius CollegeSadar Cantt, Jabalpur, 482002IndiaSrivastava Kanchan, Department of Respiratory MedicineKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndiaDave Kruti, Mehsana Urban Institute of sciences, Department of BiotechnologyGanpat UniversityKherva, 384012IndiaKumar M. Madhan, ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial DiseasesTajganjAgra-282004IndiaTiwari Monalisa, Department of BiochemistryCentral University of RajasthanAjmer-305817IndiaYadav Munna Lal, Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaDeo Nirmala, Department of BiochemistryNational JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial DiseasesTajganj, Agra 282004IndiaPrabhakar Pranav Kumar, Department of Medical Laboratory SciencesLovely Professional UniversityPunjab-144411IndiaRawat Preeti, Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaDubey Rikesh Kumar, Division of MicrobiologyCSIR-Central Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndiaSharma Sandeep, Department of Medical Laboratory SciencesLovely Professional UniversityPhagwara, Punjab-144411IndiaSharma Sarika, Department of Life ScienceArni University, KathgarhIndora, Kangra. H.P.-176401IndiaSharma Saroj, Department of BiochemistryCentral University of RajasthanAjmer-305817IndiaKumar Sudarshan, Animal Biotechnology CentreNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndiaKant Surya, Department of Respiratory MedicineKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndiaTiwari Vishvanath, Department of BiochemistryCentral University of RajasthanAjmer-305817IndiaDharDwivedi Vivek, Centre for bioinformatics, computational and systems biologPathfinder Research and Training FoundationGreater Noida, Uttar PradeshIndiaKumar Gupta Vivek, ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial DiseasesTajganjAgra-282004IndiaK. Dhuriya Yogesh, Developmental Toxicology LaboratorySystems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment Group,CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) Vishvigyan Bhawan31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg Lucknow–226 001India

Microbial Biofilm and Drug Resistance: A Proteomic Approach

Sarika Sharma1,Sandeep Sharma2,*
1 Department of Life Sciences, Arni University, Kathgarh, Indora, Kangra. H.P.-176401, India
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India

Abstract

Bacterial Biofilms are densely packed microbial communities formed by the microorganism to escape from any external threat. These Biofilms are composed of a polysaccharidic matrix, which formed a slimy layer outside the cell wall and protected the microbes from any damage (both physical and chemical). Biofilm can be developed by microorganisms on any surface, including medical devices, oral cavity and other biomaterials. These biofilms are difficult to treat and required almost 10,000 more concentrations of antibiotics compared to planktonic microorganisms. These biofilms are the main hindrance in the treatment of hospital-acquired infections. Majority of the treatment against microorganisms fails due to these biofilms in a clinical setting. Combination of different antibiotics, natural molecules and other strategies is in use to combat these biofilms. Microorganisms inside the Biofilm trigger some genes by quorum sensing and affect the expression of several protein factors. The current chapter will focus on the use of the proteomic approach for better understanding the nature and role of Biofilm in microbial pathogenesis and lower the emergence of drug resistance in these microorganisms.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Biofilm, Drug resistance, Microorganism, Pathogenesis, Polysaccharidicmatrix, Proteomics.
*Corresponding author Sandeep Sharma: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144411, India; E-mails: [email protected] and [email protected]

INTRODUCTION

Microbes are ubiquitous in nature and always busy in executing tasks. Some are building products for the benefit of humankind, and some are creating problems for humans. Biofilms are defined as organized communities of bacterial cells that are enclosed in a self-constructed polymeric matrix and adhere to any surfaces, an interface or each other [1]. Bacterial cells in biofilms are much different from their planktonic counterparts or free-floating forms. Biofilms are the extremely preferred approach of bacterial growth to survive in adverse conditions [2]. In the

natural environment, biofilms are found almost everywhere, but the negative side of Biofilm lies within Biofilm associated infections in humans. Nowadays, biofilms are accountable for many human infections, and 65 to 80% of all human infections are linked with microbial biofilms [3]. These include wound infection, infection of the lower respiratory tract in cystic fibrosis, infection in kidney stones and implanted devices in orthopedic surgery. The Biofilm associated bacterial cells have a clinically significant property with their high antibiotic resistance level compared with their free-living (planktonic) counterparts [4]. The reason for increased drug resistance may be that the bacteria within the Biofilm grow more slowly than their planktonic formed or the matrix formed by sessile bacteria, preventing the entry of the drug into the cell, while transcriptomics and proteomics revealed that the gene expression in free-floating bacterial cells is much different from bacterial cells associated with Biofilm or sessile bacterial cells [5, 6]. There were reports published in the last few years that increase resistance to an antibiotic is directly related to the high level of protein expression involved in glycolysis, microbial metabolism, and synthesis of secondary metabolites [7]. Moreover, there are also some other biological pathways which are directly involved in cell to cell communications (LuxS-mediated quorum sensing, arginine metabolism, rhamnose biosynthesis). Few other proteins (pheromone and adhesion associated proteins) were found to be upregulated during the biofilm transit from planktonic stages [8]. The exact molecular mechanisms for increased drug resistance to Biofilm are not fully understood, although many studies have already been conducted for so many years. Advances in proteomics techniques during the past decade have facilitated an in-depth analysis of the possible mechanisms underpinning increased drug resistance within Biofilm. Proteomic studies are also to establish its role in better understanding the nature of bacterial biofilms. Biofilm proteomics is defined as to study the complete set of proteins of bacteria embedded in the Biofilm [9, 10]. In this chapter, various proteomics approaches related to the Biofilm, and their increased drug resistance to pathogens will be illustrated.

The Process of Biofilm Formation

Biofilm formation is an exceptionally sophisticated process in which free-floating microbial cells will be transformed into sessile form. The formation of Biofilm is a multistage process in which a series of events takes place as an adaptation of microbial cells to survive and divide in a broad range of harsh environmental conditions [11]. Biofilm formation is a multi-step process which includes attachment of free-floating microbial cells to a surface, the growth and aggregation of cells into microcolonies followed by growth into mature, structurally complex Biofilm (maturation), and the dispersal of detached bacterial cells as shown in Fig. (1) [12].

Attachment

The attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface is mediated by any one of them (like week van der Waals forces, electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions) or by a combination of all these interactions [13]. Pili and pilus-associated adhesins have also been reported to play an important role in adhesion and colonization of microbial cells to the surfaces [14, 15]. The microbial cells that initiate attachment are covered by only small amounts of exopolymeric material. While following the initial attachment to a surface, the bacteria have to maintain contact with the surface. Thus, the stage of attachment is followed by a phase during which the synthesis of bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) provides steady attachment by forming organic bridges between the cells and the surface [16].

Micro-Colony Formation

After the bacteria adhered to the surface, the bacterial cell multiplies within the embedded exopolysaccharide matrix, which lastly results in micro-colony formation. After the micro-colony formation stage of Biofilm, there is an upregulation of certain biofilm genes. It is observed that bacterial attachment can trigger the formation of an extracellular matrix [17]. Matrix formation is followed by water-filled channels formation for the transport of nutrients within the Biofilm. Researcher has proposed that these water channels are like a circulatory system, distributing different nutrients to and removing waste materials from the communities in the micro-colonies of the Biofilm [3, 18].

Detachment

The growth of the bacterial Biofilm is eventually restricted by the availability of nutrients accumulation of toxic by-products and other factors, including pH, oxygen perfusion, carbon source availability and osmolarity [19]. At some point, dispersing of biofilm cells occur either by the detachment of newly formed cells from growing cells or dispersion of biofilm aggregates. The cells may detach, and together with the progeny of other biofilm cells, may colonize other surfaces [20]. Enzymes such as polysaccharide lyases that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide matrix have been reported to play a role in biofilm dissolution in several organisms [21]. The cells which are dispersed from biofilm as a result of growth may return quickly to their normal planktonic phenotype.

Mechanism of Biofilm Resistance against Antimicrobials

Resistance to drugs and antibiotics is attained by microbes permanently or temporarily during the survival strategy of microbes in adverse circumstances [22]. Antibiotic resistance is nowadays a serious threat for humankind as the present regime of antimicrobials is not working against existing resistant microbes [23]. It has been reported that the sessile form of microbes is harder to treat than the planktonic ones. There are many mechanisms shown by sessile microbes against antimicrobials [24].

Fig. (1)) Steps in biofilm formation.

Limited Penetration of Drugs Due to Glycocalyx

Microbes present in biofilms have increased resistance towards many drugs and biocides, and researchers have shown that the presence of glycocalyx partially inhibits the entry of drugs by forming a diffusion barrier to the antimicrobial agents [25]. Glycocalyx is an integral component of the biofilms, and its thickness varied from 0.2 to 1.0µm. The time of the entry of the drug into cells takes more time as the distance to the cell increases due to the presence of glycocalyx, by molecular sieving (size exclusion), and by the viscosity of glycocalyx. Nonetheless, limited penetration of drugs into the bacterial cells via glycocalyx is one of the most probable resistance mechanisms associated with biofilms [22, 26].

Enzyme-Mediated Resistance

Resistance to antimicrobials or drugs can be attributed to the presence of enzymes that transform bactericidal compounds into the nontoxic form [27]. There are some species of bacteria known for the degradation of toxic compounds such as aromatic, phenolic and other heavy metals [28]. The process of detoxification is done by enzymatic reduction, which converts the cations to the metal, whereas some plasmids harbor heavy metal resistance genes [29]. The presence of heavy metals in the bacterial cells induces the enzymes and results in drug resistance. Some heavy metals induce resistance to a broader spectrum of antibiotics [30].

State of Metabolism and Rate of Growth in Biofilms

It was found that the growth rate of sessile bacteria is much slower than their planktonic counter parts [4]. The metabolic activities of cells were enhanced by nutrients and oxygen in the biofilms, which sustains bacterial growth and metabolism [31, 32]. Biofilm increases the level of resistance against antibiotics under limiting the concentration of oxygen and nutrients by expressing some genes under anaerobic conditions [33]. While due to poor diffusion of nutrients, the metabolic activities of bacterial cells slow down inside Biofilm, leading to slowly growing cells [34]. When biofilms are treated with the inhibitory concentration of any bactericidal agents, the cells within biofilms lead to phenotypic adaption and show resistance. The factors such as heat or starvation stress enhance tolerance of bacterial biofilms against antimicrobial agents [35, 36].

Genetic Adaptations

The formation of Biofilm is an adaption strategy of bacteria under harsh conditions so, during biofilm formation, bacterial cells undergo many phenotypic changes [37]. These phenotypic changes are accompanied by genotype changes that make the sessile bacterial cell more robust to treat with antimicrobials. The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operons are known regulator which controls the expression of mar genes in E. coli. encodes for multi-drug resistant phenotype and shows resistance to various antibiotics, organic solvents and disinfectants [38]. Variety of genes have been reported in E. coli responsible for drug resistance like superoxide dismutases, catalysts, alkyl hydroperoxide reductases and glutathione reductases, and enzymes involved in the DNA repair mechanism of the bacterial cell [39]. In addition, various regulatory genes such as oxyR and sox are also reported to activate when cells are exposed to stress conditions such as oxidizing agents and thus provide resistance to many drugs [40].

Efflux Pumps

Efflux pumps are the key component of the low level of drug resistance in bacteria [41]. Efflux pumps favor bacterial vitality in adverse conditions, including antimicrobial agents [42]. Efflux pumps attributed both intrinsic and acquired resistance of bacterial cells against antibacterial agents that are structurally related or different. There are five different classes of bacterial efflux pumps identified that are accountable for drug resistance [43]: (1) the major facilitator superfamily (MF), (2) the resistance-nodulation-division family (RND), (3) the small multidrug resistance family (SMR), (4) the ATP-binding cassette family (ABC) and the (5) multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family (MATE) [44]. The ABC family system hydrolyses ATP to work as antimicrobial agent efflux, while the MF family, MATE family, and the RND family served as secondary transporters, catalyzing drug ion antiproton (H+ or Na+) [45]. RND family transporters mutate the drug target or drug in the bacterial cell [46]. The lower concentration of many antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol and tetracycline and xenobiotics such as salicylate and chlorinated phenols, activates the expression of multi-drug resistance operons and efflux pumps in the bacterial cells entrapped in biofilms [43-47].

Quorum Sensing

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of cell-to-cell communication via specific signals which are given from one cell to another cell in bacteria for their survival under adverse conditions [48]. The QS signals in the bacteria mainly consist of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHLs), autoinducing peptide (AIPs), and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which play a major role in the pathogenesis mechanism of bacteria [49]. The activation of QS signaling aids biofilm formation and leads to antimicrobial resistance [50]. QS signals participate in the synthesis of various virulence factors such as lectin, exotoxin A, pyocyanin, and elastase in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa during its growth and infection [51]. These virulence factors are regulated by QS and help bacterial cells to invade the host immune and obtain nutrition from the host. The Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells have different QS signals for cell-to-cell interactions. The Gram-negative bacteria mainly produce the AHL signaling molecules [52], and Gram-positive bacterial cells produce AIP signaling molecules for the cell to cell communication [53].

TARGET PROTEINS TO STUDY BIOFILM

Proteins Involved in Cellular Metabolism

There are some basic cellular processes occurred in the bacterial cell, which are crucial in biofilm formation, such as glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, protein synthesis and its degradation, fatty acid synthesis and its degradation, etc [54]. Motility proteins have a key role in biofilm formation, as reported by Moorthy and Watnick [55]. Biofilms are initiated by attachment of bacteria to the surface, and the process of attachment requires proteins of flagella and pili for adhesion, as reported in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [56]. It was found that the proteins responsible for the synthesis of flagella are downregulated and slow down the movement of bacterial cells and lead to the development of Biofilm [57].

Transporter Proteins

Many studies on planktonic and sessile bacterial cells reported that the proteins involved in the transport of molecules in the microbial cells have a major role in biofilm formation [58]. Most of the transporter proteins are located in the membrane and served as primary transporters and secondary transporters and worked as channels and carriers [59]. Expression of various transporters (ABC transporters) is altered accordingly to the exterior surroundings, as reported in Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, T. maritime, E. coli, Streptococcus mutans and P. aeruginosa [60-64]. Differential expression of these transport proteins under diverse conditions is essential for the growth of bacteria as well as the formation and stability of Biofilm [65].

Stress-responsive Proteins

It is now well known that biofilm formation is done by microbial cells to survive under harsh conditions. This feature of bacteria requires the expression of some specific proteins that aid bacterial cells to adapt themselves successfully in adverse conditions. In the process of biofilm formation, researchers reported that there is 10 to 20-fold up-regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins [66], which contributed resistance and protection from oxidative stress. The two more oxidative stresses related proteins, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thioredoxin, were reported to be over-expressed in the Biofilm formed by Helicobacter pylori [67]. Two chaperone proteins GroES and GroEL and ß-subunit of RNA polymerase were also up-regulated under serum starvation [67].

Proteomic Techniques to Study Biofilm

In the last two decades, drug resistance has emerged as a serious threat to the health of the human race and to figure out the mechanism behind antibiotic resistance is imperative to boost the efficacy of current antibiotics and to explore novel targets [68]. The study of protein profiles by proteomic analysis has become a crucial tool for the study of underlying mechanisms related to bacterial resistance and virulence. In proteomics, analysis of the total protein content of cells is carried out. The proteomic response is peculiar for every antibiotic, but proteins involved in energy and nitrogen metabolism, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, glucan biosynthesis, and stress response are often effected [69].

The proteomic techniques are regularly being advanced and an immense variety of methods and applications are available [8-70]. Bacterial proteome analyses commenced with traditional electrophoretic techniques like sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). SDS-PAGE is an analytical technique to separate proteins based on their molecular weight. The ionic detergent SDS denatures the proteins and makes them uniformly negatively charged [71]. Thus, when the current is applied, all SDS-bound proteins in a sample will migrate towards the cathode and proteins with lower mass move more quickly through the gel than those with larger mass because of the sieving effect of the gel. After SDS-PAGE, most quantitative proteomic studies were performed by 2D-PAGE, 2-DE, which is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze mixtures of proteins [72]. In two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, proteins are first separated based on their pI (isoelectric point) in isoelectric focusing and then further separated by molecular weight through SDS-PAGE; thus, the sample proteins are distributed across the two-dimensional gel profile. This technique broadens the number of proteins that can be studied and produce more efficient data and detailed information for proteomics analysis, particularly after the incorporation of immobilized pH gradients and of the difference fluorescent labeling method of electrophoresis (DIGE). The gel-free methods become more prominent, and metabolic labeling was included in quantitative analysis.

Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)

SILAC is a metabolic labeling technique for mass spectrometric based quantitative proteomics. Cells are differentially labeled by growing them in media supplied with either a light or heavy stable isotope of a nutrient, generally a nitrogen source or an amino acid [73]. Metabolic incorporation of amino acids into the proteins results in the mass shift of the corresponding peptides; this mass shift is detected by the mass spectrometer. Typical SILAC labeling uses lysine and arginine, which in combination with trypsin digestion, results in labeling every peptide in the mixture; the so-called stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) strategy now prevails [74, 75].

Isotope-coded Affinity Tags (ICAT)

As a substitute for metabolic labeling, differential analysis can be carried out by chemical labeling. Isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) consist of three functional elements: a specific chemical reactive group that binds to sulfhydryl groups of cysteinyl residues, an isotopically coded linker with light or heavy isotopes, and a biotin tag for affinity purification [76]. The cysteine residue of extracted labeled with either a light or heavy (deuterium containing). Afterwards, light and heavy labeled samples are pooled and proteolytically cleaved. Later, the complexity of the sample is reduced prior to MS analysis through the purification of tagged cysteine-containing peptides by affinity chromatography using biotin-avidin affinity columns. Peptide pairs with 8 Da mass-shifts are detected in MS scans, and their ion intensities are compared for relative quantitation [77]. ICAT labelling takes place at the protein level allowing samples to be pooled prior to protease treatment. On the other hand, cysteine is not found very much in proteins, and approximately one in seven proteins do not contain this amino acid, greatly reducing the efficacy of the process [78].

Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)

Today, the multiple isobaric tags are most preferred among chemical isotope labeling methods [79]. iTRAQ tags are isobarics and mainly designed for the labeling of peptides rather than proteins. The overall molecule mass is kept constant at 145 Da for iTRAQ-4plex and 304 Da for -8plex. The iTRAQ-4plex molecule contains a reporter group (based on N-methylpiperazine), a mass balance group (carbonyl), and a peptide-reactive group (NHS ester). The iTRAQ reagents label N-terminal peptide and ε-amino groups of lysine side chains and allow comparison of up to eight samples in the same experiment. The iTRAQ labelled peptides are further purified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and then analyzed by tandem MS [80]. Each tag releases a distinct mass reporter ion upon peptide fragmentation, the ratio of which determines the relative abundances of the peptides iTRAQ labeled peptides appear as a single unresolved precursor at the same m/z in the MS spectrum. Upon peptide fragmentation, the iTRAQ labeled fragments produce reporter ions in a “silent region,” usually unpopulated, at low m/z range (e.g., 114–121). Measurements of the reporter ion intensities enable the relative quantification of the peptide in each sample [78].

Tandem Mass Tags (TMT)

A tandem mass tag is an MS/MS-based quantitative method using isotopomer labels in iTRAQ [81]. Both techniques share several common features. (i) These methods use reagent N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS), which does specific tagging of primary amino groups. (ii) They were designed to allow multiplexing of several samples by chemical derivatization with different forms of the same isobaric tag that appear as a single peak in MS analysis. (iii) The release of “daughter ions” in MS/MS analysis weighs between 126 and 131 Da that can be used for relative quantification. The cysteine reactive TMT (cysTMT) reagents enable selective labeling and relative quantitation of cysteine-containing peptides from up to six biological samples [82, 83].

Isotope-coded Protein Label (ICPL)

In the technique of Isotope-coded protein label (ICPL), free amino groups present in proteins are isotopically labeled [84]. Two protein mixtures are reduced and alkylated for easy access to free amino groups that are subsequently labelled with the isotopes of deuterium-free (light) or 4 deuteriums containing (heavy). Light- and heavy-labeled samples are then mixed, fractionated, and digested before high throughput MS analysis [85]. The peptides of identical sequences derived from the two deferentially labeled protein samples of different mass, they appear as doublets in the acquired MS spectra. From the ratios of the ion intensities of these peptide pairs, the relative abundance of their parent proteins in the original samples can be determined [86].

Bioorthogonal Noncanonical Amino Acid Tagging (BONCAT)

It is a leading proteome labeling technique that is highly sensitive and based on the in vivo incorporation of synthetic amino acids that exploit the substrate promiscuity of artificial amino acids such as azidohomoalanine (AHA) or homopropargylglycine (HPG). Both molecules compete with methionine and are incorporated into newly synthesized protein [87]. When the cell is anabolically active, AHA and HPG are detected via azide-alkyne click chemistry. This method depends on pulse labeling and helps in identifying the de novo synthesized proteome of microbial cells, which are translationally active [88].

Future Prospectus

Proteomics, the promising new “omics,” has emerged as an important integral tool to genomics, providing novel information and greater vision into the proteome of bacterial biofilms. Advancement in proteomics techniques like MS and metabolic labeling, together with bioinformatics tools, can enhance our knowledge about proteins that can be targeted to combat with increased resistance of microbes present in biofilms. More studies are required to generate information about the regulation of proteins involved in biofilm formation. Metaproteomics and proteogenomics approaches can improve our knowledge in understanding proteomes of sessile microbes and aid in the identification of target proteins accountable for biofilm formation and resistance towards antibiotics. In the future, proteomic technology will become an asset for researchers and scientists for diagnosing infections, discovery of novel antibiotics and innovative therapies against drug-resistant microbes.

CONCLUSION

Nowadays, the drug resistance of microbes and the study of microbial Biofilm are one of the highly crucial affairs for the scientific community. The rapidly developing field of genomics transcriptomics and proteomics elucidated the complexity of biofilm regulation. The combination of various proteomics techniques provides a detailed understanding of the proteins involved at every step of biofilm formation, starting from the attachment of microbial cells to the surface, their development, and the detachment from the surface. In due course, the proteomics study on biofilm formation will lead to improved strategies for inhibition of biofilm formation and decipher the protein targets for the treatment of various infections caused by biofilms.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not Applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

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