Practical Food Safety -  - E-Book

Practical Food Safety E-Book

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Beschreibung

The past few years have witnessed an upsurge in incidencesrelating to food safety issues, which are all attributed todifferent factors. Today, with the increase in knowledge andavailable databases on food safety issues, the world is witnessingtremendous efforts towards the development of new, economical andenvironmentally-friendly techniques for maintaining the quality ofperishable foods and agro-based commodities. The intensification offood safety concerns reflects a major global awareness of foods inworld trade. Several recommendations have been put forward byvarious world governing bodies and committees to solve food safetyissues, which are all mainly targeted at benefiting consumers. Inaddition, economic losses and instability to a particular nation orregion caused by food safety issues can be huge. Various'non-dependent' risk factors can be involved withregard to food safety in a wide range of food commodities such asfresh fruits, vegetables, seafood, poultry, meat and meat products.Additionally, food safety issues involves a wide array of issuesincluding processed foods, packaging, post-harvest preservation,microbial growth and spoilage, food poisoning, handling at themanufacturing units, food additives, presence of banned chemicalsand drugs, and more. Rapid change in climatic conditions is alsoplaying a pivotal role with regard to food safety issues, andincreasing the anxiety about our ability to feed the worldsafely. Practical Food Safety: Contemporary Issues and FutureDirections takes a multi-faceted approach to the subject offood safety, covering various aspects ranging from microbiologicalto chemical issues, and from basic knowledge to futureperspectives. This is a book exclusively designed to simultaneouslyencourage consideration of the present knowledge and futurepossibilities of food safety. This book also covers the classictopics required for all books on food safety, and encompasses themost recent updates in the field. Leading researchers haveaddressed new issues and have put forth novel research findingsthat will affect the world in the future, and suggesting how theseshould be faced. This book will be useful for researchers engaged in the field offood science and food safety, food industry personnel engaged insafety aspects, and governmental and non-governmental agenciesinvolved in establishing guidelines towards establishing safetymeasures for food and agricultural commodities.

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CONTENTS

Cover

Title page

Copyright page

List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

1 Food Safety

1.1 Introduction

1.2 National and global food safety events

1.3 Foodborne illness outbreaks: imports and exports

1.4 Regulations impacting food safety

1.5 China’s food safety growing pains

1.6 Food safety and product testing

1.7 Fresh fruits and vegetables safety

1.8 Conclusions and future outlook

References

2 Food Safety

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Novel technologies and issues

2.3 Consumer attitudes, knowledge and behavior

2.4 Conclusion and outlook

References

3 Educating for Food Safety

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Food safety education targeting food handlers

3.3 Effective food safety education interventions

3.4 Future outlook

Acknowledgements

References

4 Food Safety Training in Food Services

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Legislation about training

4.3 Evaluation of the programs

4.4 Planning the training programs

4.5 Conclusions and future outlook

References

5 Product Tracing Systems

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Traceability: meaning and context

5.3 International traceability regulations

5.4 Private global traceability standards

5.5 Country-specific traceability requirements

5.6 Costs and benefits to traceability

5.7 Challenges

5.8 The role of technology in traceability

5.9 Steps to achieve a global, traceable supply chain

5.10 Summary and outlook

Acknowledgements

References

6 Linking Local Suppliers to Global Food Markets

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The rise of global supply chains

6.3 Global trade opportunities for developing countries

6.4 Food safety issues: traceability, certification, labelling and phytosanitary

6.5 Role of public standards

6.6 Role of private standards in food supply chains

6.7 Challenges faced by developing countries in food safety implementation

6.8 Conclusions and future outlook

References

7 Achieving Quality Chemical Measurements in Foods

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Quality assurance in food analysis

7.3 Metrology in chemistry

7.4 Conclusions and future outlook

Acknowledgements

References

8 Protection of the Agri-FoodChain by Chemical Analysis

8.1 Introduction

8.2 European foodand feed law

8.3 Chemical contaminants

8.4 Resolution of disputed chemical results

8.5 Conclusions and future outlook

Acknowledgements

References

9 Pesticide Residues in Food

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Pesticides

9.3 Pathway of pesticide residues in the food chain

9.4 Pesticide residue dissipation during processing

9.5 Pesticide residues in food and food products

9.6 Pesticide residues in humans

9.7 Health repercussions

9.8 Measures to combat pesticide exposure

References

10 The Need for a Closer Look at Pesticide Toxicity during GMO Assessment

10.1 Purpose, aim and scope

10.2 A silent pandemic

10.3 Link between pesticides and agricultural GMOs

10.4 Focus on Roundup toxicity in GMOs

10.5 Agricultural GMOs producing

Bt

are new insecticidal plants

10.6 Side-effects of the genetic modification itself

10.7 Limits and difficulties of interpretations in toxicity tests

10.8 The relevance of

in vivo

findings and length of the nutritional tests

10.9 Conclusions and future outlook

References

11 What Have We Learnt from the Melamine-tainted Milk Incidents in China?

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Melamine and its analogs

11.3 Melamine incidents

11.4 Epidemiological studies

11.5 Screening methods

11.6 Confirmatory methods

11.7 Health effects and toxicology of melamine and its analogs

11.8 Diet exposure assessment from China Total Diet Study

11.9 Who should be responsible for food safety in China?

11.10 Conclusions and future perspectives

References

12 Heavy Metals of Special Concern to Human Health and Environment

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Mercury

12.3 Cadmium

12.4 Lead

12.5 Chromium

12.6 Arsenic

12.7 Nickel

12.8 Other essential elements

12.9 Conclusions

References

13 Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Food

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Analytical methods

13.3 Contamination levels data

13.4 Heavy metals in non-conventionally produced crops

13.5 Dietary health risk assessment of heavy metals through consumption of food commodities

13.6 Conclusion

References

14 Heavy Metal Contaminationas a Global Problem and theNeed for Prevention/Reduction Measurements

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Pathway of heavy metals through the food chain

14.3 Multiple environmental factors affecting accumulation of heavy metals in food and impact on human health

14.4 Comparative levels of heavy metals in vegetables and fruits from different countries

14.5 Removal of heavy metal contamination

14.6 Prevention and reduction of metal contamination in food

14.7 Recent technologies for removal of heavy metal contaminants

14.8 Conclusion

References

15 Radionuclides in Food

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Radionuclides in nature

15.3 Historical background of radioactivity

15.4 Radionuclidesand the food chain

15.5 Measurement of radionuclides in food

15.6

210

Po and

210

Pb (polonium and lead) in food

15.7 Uranium, thorium and radium

15.8 Other radionuclides in food

15.9 Minimizing internal exposure by ingestion after long-scale radiation releases

15.10 Conclusions and future outlook

References

16 Antinutrients and Toxicity in Plant-based Foods

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Toxicity

16.3 Plant-derived allergens

16.4 Mechanisms of antinutritional factors

16.5 Prevention and detoxification

16.6 Health repercussions

16.7 Conclusions and future outlook

References

17 Nanotechnology Tools to Achieve Food Safety

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Types of nanotechnological devices

17.3 Food safety monitoring systems

17.4 Safety regulations regarding food-applied nanotechnology

17.5 Conclusions and outlook

References

18 Photonic Methods for Pathogen Inactivation

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Comparison of CW UV and PL treatment

18.3 Microbial inactivation mechanism

18.4 Sublethal injury, acquired resistance and sensitization

18.5 Kinetics of microbial inactivation

18.6 Application of photonic methods

18.7 Concluding remarks and future work

Acknowledgement

References

19 Intelligent Packagingand Food Safety

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Concepts of intelligent packaging

19.3 Radio frequency identification

19.4 Gas indicators and sensors

19.5 Gas composition sensors

19.6 Freshness or spoilage indicators

19.7 Biosensors and nanosensors

19.8 Conclusion and future outlook

References

20 Consumer Perception of Safety and Quality of Food Products Maintained under Cold Storage

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The role of refrigeration in food quality and safety

20.3 Effects of temperature on food spoilage and quality

20.4 Quality and safety of frozen foods

20.5 Cold storage technologies

20.6 Consumers’ handling of chilled food and home practices

20.7 Conclusions and future outlook

References

21 Foodborne Infections and Intoxications Associatedwith International Travel

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Travelers’ diarrhea

21.3 Etiology of foodborne infections

21.4 Clinical symptoms/signs and diagnosis of TD

21.5 Therapy of TD

21.6 Prevention and Prophylaxis of TD

21.7 Foodborne intoxications

21.8 Conclusion

References

22 Electron Beam Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens with an Emphasis on

Salmonella

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Food irradiation

22.3 Inactivation of

Salmonella

with e-beam and ionizing radiation

22.4 Microbial inactivation kinetics and process calculations

22.5 Microbial radio-resistance

22.6 Foodborne

Salmonella

outbreaks and

Salmonella

reservoirs

22.7 US regulatory status of e-beam

22.8 Future direction of

Salmonella

inactivation using e-beam

22.9 Conclusions

References

23 Inactivation of Foodborne Viruses

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Physical treatments

23.3 Chemical treatments

23.4 Conclusions and future outlook

References

24 Use of Synbiotics (Probiotics and Prebiotics) to Improve the Safety of Foods

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Probiotics

24.3 Prebiotics and synbiotics

24.4 Production of bacteriocins by probiotic LAB

Acknowledgements

References

25 Predictive Microbiology

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Predictive microbiology

25.3 Microbiological risk assessment

25.4 Software packages and web applications

25.5 Applications and future implications

Acknowledgements

References

26 Pests in Poultry, Poultry Product-Borne Infection and Future Precautions

26.1 Introduction

26.2 The potential risk of contamination in poultry

26.3 Major sources of pests in poultry

26.4 Importantpoultry-related diseases associated with pests

26.5 Current practices of pest control in poultry

26.6 Promising pest control strategies

26.7 Conclusion and future outlook

References

27 Safety of Meat and Meat Products in the Twenty-first Century

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Where did we start?

27.3 Associated risk and public health

27.4 Meat safety: fresh (chilled and frozen) red meat

27.5 Meat safety: cooked and ready-to-eat meats

27.6 Meat safety: fermented meats

27.7 Current status of meat safety and future outlook

References

28 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles for Ochratoxin-A Prevention in Coffee Production Chain

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Coffee qualityand food safety

28.3 Mycotoxins

28.4 Coffee production and OTA contamination

28.5 Coffee waste management and OTA contamination

28.6 Curing factories as a source of OTA contamination

28.7 Application of GAP/GMP and HACCP principles

28.8 Conclusions and future outlook

Acknowledgements

References

Supplemental Images

Index

Eula

List of Tables

Chapter 02

Table 2.1 Highlights of consumer concerns about novel food technologies.

Chapter 03

Table 3.1 Analysis of food safety education interventions (N = 19) published in the English language during 1994–2012.

Table 3.2 Behavior change theories

Table 3.3 Learning theories

Table 3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of online versus face-to-face training

Chapter 04

Table 4.1 Issues presented in food safety training programs.

Table 4.2 Methods and results of food safety training programs.

Chapter 05

Table 5.1 Key data elements (KDE) for capture and recordkeeping at critical tracking events (CTE) suggested to the US FDA. R: required field; C: conditional field (the need for this field would be determined by business circumstances; *required in the instance of transport events that do not capture batch/lot numbers); BP: best practice is to capture the batch/lot number or relevant date whenever possible (if difficulty in capturing this information for transport and depletion events, activity ID or other KDEs that provide links, as identified in the table, must be provided* as the industry prepares to meet a future requirement to capture lot/batch numbers).

Chapter 06

Table 6.1 Strengthening Food Safety through stakeholder collaboration: a Case of Mango Exports from India.

Chapter 07

Table 7.1 Method validation for quantitative analysis in food outlined by various documents.

Table 7.2 The relationship between a range of classes of mass fragment and identification points earned

Table 7.3 Recommended acceptance criteria for recovery and repeatability by AOAC (2002)

Table 7.4 Infrastructure and development of metrology under the treaty of the Metre Convention

Table 7.5 Major CRM producers from national metrology institutes or designated institutes

Table 7.6 Participants’ analytical methods and results in the PT programme for melamine in milk (––– no information reported; NA: not applicable;

X

ref

: assigned reference value;

X

robust

: mean calculated using robust test; CV: between-laboratory variation of participant results)

Table 7.7 Participants’ analytical methods and results in the PT programme for cypermethrin in green tea (–––: no information reported; SPE: solid phase extraction; GPC: gel permeation chromatography; NA: not applicable;

X

ref

: assigned reference value;

X

robust

: mean calculated using robust test; CV: between-laboratory variation)

Chapter 08

Table 8.1 Contaminants regulated in the EU

Table 8.2 Patulin maximum limit (maximum permitted concentration, Regulation 1881/2006; EC, 2006a)

Table 8.3 Non-exhaustive summary of typical EU maximum limits (ML) for mycotoxins in foods. Three examples are given: the commodity with the lowest ML; a typical staple food ML; and the commodity with the highest ML. The original regulations must be consulted for all maxima in force (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?val=437851:cs&lang=en&list=572915:cs,437851:cs,&pos=2&page=1&nbl=2&pgs=10&hwords=) for the latest current consolidated version (dated 12.03.2012) from which the following data were obtained.

Table 8.4 Nitrofuran metabolite marker compounds

Table 8.5 Contaminants other than those regulated in the EU

Chapter 09

Table 9.1 Dissipation of pesticide residues during washing (–: not detected).

Table 9.2 Dissipation of pesticide residues by dipping in chemical solutions

Table 9.3 Dissipation of pesticide residues during heat treatment

Table 9.4 Dissipation of pesticide residues during cooling

Table 9.5 Summary of different studies on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables

Table 9.6 Organochlorine pesticide residues (mg/kg on fat basis) detected in milk fat in different countries

Table 9.7 Selected reproductive health problems after exposure to pesticides among men or women

Table 9.8 Adverse reproductive health effects on females associated with pesticide formulations

Chapter 13

Table 13.1 Concentration levels (mg kg

–1

) of heavy metals in medicinal plants collected from Egyptian markets (ND: not detected).

Table 13.2 Total heavy metal content in different types of cucumber fruits collected from Egyptian markets, and percent of some metals in the total content. Data adapted from Mansour et al. (2009a).

Table 13.3 Total heavy metal content in conventionally and organically farmed potato tubers collected from Egyptian markets, and percent of some metals in the total content. Data adapted from Mansour et al. (2009b).

Table 13.4 Estimated intake levels (µg per day) of lead and cadmium by vegetables and fruits based on global diet (182 and 236 g day

–1

for vegetables and fruits, respectively).

Chapter 14

Table 14.1 Concentration (ppm) of some heavy metals in fish samples collected from Fayoum Governorate, Egypt compared to the permissible limits. After Mansour and Sidky (2002). Each value is a general mean for the concentration levels of the corresponding metal; values with asterisks (*) are above the permissible limits.

Table 14.2 Relative accumulation of heavy metals in natural aquatic ecosystems.

Table 14.3 Levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in selected fruits and vegetables: comparison between some countries.

Chapter 15

Table 15.1 Recent reports highlighting the presence of radionuclides in various foodstuffs.

Chapter 16

Table 16.1 Mineral elements, their sources and possible harmful effects due to excess in diet.

Table 16.2 Effect of bean colour on α-amylase inhibitory activity of P. vulgaris. An α-amylase inhibitory unit (AIU) value of 10 is defined as a 50% decrease in enzyme activity at 37°C/5 min after addition of 1% starch as substrate.

Table 16.3 Phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activities of pulses.

Table 16.4 Some intrinsic toxicants of plants that decrease nutrient availability.

Table 16.5 Some intrinsic toxicants of plants that decrease nutrient utilization.

Table 16.6 Beneficial effects of legumes.

Chapter 20

Table 20.1 Temperature requirements of microorganisms (Kraemer, 2002), with kind permission

Table 20.2 Star rating of freezers (ISO 2005; HEA, 2009).

Chapter 21

Table 21.1 Travel associated foodborne infections and intoxications (selection). Asterisk (*) highlights those which may be present without gastrointestinal manifestations.

Table 21.2 High and low risk foods for the acquisition of TD (Casburn-Jones and Farthing, 2004; DuPont, 2006; Hill and Beeching, 2010)

Table 21.3 Systemic diseases with diarrhea as symptom

Table 21.4 Antbiotic treatment for acute travelers’ diarrhea (adult dosing regimens)

Chapter 22

Table 22.1 Some examples of products approved for food irradiation in the United States

Chapter 23

Table 23.1 Overview of physical and chemical treatments used to inactivate foodborne viruses

Chapter 25

Table 25.1 Most popular tertiary models available on the web to determine the behaviour of pathogens in foods.

Chapter 26

Table 26.1 Comparison of the reported identified main risk categories and factors of

Salmonella

introduction among findings. Adapted from Wilke

et al

. (2011) (NA: not available).

Chapter 27

Table 27.1 Animal diseases that are detectable by veterinary inspection and may be transmitted to man through meat

Table 27.2 Microbiological hazard risk rating for meat and meat products in Australia (Sumner et al., 2005b). Arbitrary aggregation of Risk Ranger ratings are Low: <25, Medium: 26–40; High >40. Note that a change in risk rating of 6 is equivalent to an order of magnitude change in relative risk as defined in Ross and Sumner (2002)

Table 27.3 Risk Rating summary EHEC contamination in undercooked hamburgers (Sumner

et al

., 2005b)

Table 27.4 Selected outbreaks of listeriosis from consumption of ready-to-eat meats (after Sutherland et al., 2003)

Table 27.5 Microbiological criteria for

Listeria monocytogenes

in ready-to-eat foods (source: CAC 2007b);

n

: number of samples that must conform to the criterion;

c

: the maximum allowable number of defective sample units in a 2-class plan;

m

: microbiological limit which, in a 2-class plan, separates acceptable lots from unacceptable lots.

Chapter 28

Table 28.1 Basic principles of the HACCP system.

Table 28.2 Coffee processing chain and critical control points for OTA prevention. (GAP: good agricultural practices; GMP: good manufacturing practices; GHP: good hygienic practices, HACCP: hazard analysis and critical control point; CCP: critical control point)

Table 28.3 Code of good practices for OTA prevention in coffee production

List of Illustrations

Chapter 07

Figure 7.1 The technical requirements for competent food laboratories outlined in ISO/IEC 17025.

Figure 7.2 Probability of a measurement following a Gaussian distribution pattern due to random and systematic errors; 95% of the data fall within ±2 times the standard deviation from the mean value.

Figure 7.3 A control chart for monitoring the analysis of aflatoxin B1 in feeds. UAL, UCL, LAL and LCL represent the upper action limit, upper control limit, lower action limit and lower control limit, respectively.

Figure 7.4 Results of vitamin A generated from a LC-MS/MS method are traceable to a standard method and a CRM through an unbroken chain.

Figure 7.5 Results of iodine in drinking water generated from an ICP-MS method are traceable to the SI unit through an unbroken chain. The neat iodate standard is traceable to an iodate CRM.

Figure 7.6 LC-MS/MS results of amoxycillin A in porcine muscle samples in four test samples. Taking into account the respective expanded uncertainty (error bar), only sample A is confirmed to be above the maximum residue limit (MRL).

Figure 7.7 Provision of traceability and dissemination of MiC from NMI/DI to food testing laboratories through the CIPM MRA.

Figure 7.8 Distribution of participants’ reported concentration (mg kg

–1

) for melamine in milk. Central bold line is the reference assigned value, dotted lines represent |

z

| = 1, solid lines represent |

z

| = 2, error bars represent the respective expanded uncertainty and black circles indicate no MU reported.

Figure 7.9 Distribution of participants’ reported concentration (ng g

–1

) for cypermethrin in green tea. Central bold line is the reference assigned value, dotted lines represent |

z

| = 1, solid lines represent |

z

| = 2, arrows show the reported results are off scale and error bars represent the respective expanded uncertainty.

Chapter 09

Figure 9.1 Possible pathways of a pesticide to food chain.

Chapter 10

Figure 10.1 The origin of pesticides and plasticizers from petroleum and plant aromatic compounds. The fossilization of plant aromatic compounds, in particular, takes millions of years of sedimentation to make aromatic stable petroleum compounds. Plant aromatic compounds structurally resemble animal sex steroids with aromatic cycles, and this explains their sexual effects and pheromonal activities. For this reason, chemically processed petroleum molecules and pesticides have aromatic or pseudo-aromatic structures, like plasticizers. This is why we can observe a crossed reactivity between these cyclic compounds in plants or petroleum and steroid hormones.

Figure 10.2 Glyphosate and Roundup are cytotoxic and endocrine disruptors at lower levels in human cells. Roundup is highly cytotoxic on human cells because of the non-specific actions of its adjuvants on cell membranes. At lower levels, Roundup is an endocrine disruptor. This is because glyphosate is structurally almost half of an aromatic cycle. It binds to aromatic-recognizing active sites and acts as an endocrine disruptor on aromatase and sex steroids receptors (androgen and estrogens receptors). Its adjuvants may help to enter cell membranes including endoplasmic reticulum, where aromatase is located.

Chapter 11

Figure 11.1 Structures of melamine and related compounds

Figure 11.2 Pictorial representation of Chinese characters of food and its components

Chapter 13

Figure 13.1 Heavy metal content (mg kg

–1

dry weight) in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils. Scientific names of plants: radish:

Raphanus sativus

; spinach:

Spinacia oleracea

; turnip:

Brassica rapa

; brinjal:

Solanum melogena

; cauliflower:

Brassica oleracea

var. botrytis; mint:

Mentha requienii

; coriander:

Coriandrum sativum

; carrot:

Daucus carota

. Adapted from Arora

et al.

(2008). For color details, see color plates section

Figure 13.2 Mean concentrations (mg kg

–1

dry weight) of heavy metals in some vegetables sampled from Chongqing markets, China. Adapted from Yang

et al.

(2011). For color details, see color plates section

Figure 13.3 Seasonal variation of heavy metal concentrations in different types of cucumber fruits collected from conventional, greenhouse, and organic cultivations in Egypt. Data adapted from Mansour

et al.

(2009a).

Figure 13.4 Seasonal variation of heavy metal content in conventionally and organically farmed potato tubers collected from Egyptian markets. Data adapted from Mansour

et al.

(2009b). For color details, see color plates section

Figure 13.5 Health risk assessment for cadmium and lead via intake of foodstuffs from wastewater-irrigated sites in India; based on estimated health risk index (HRI). HRI≥1 indicates a health risk to humans. Analyzed vegetables and cereal crops: palak:

Beta vulgaris

L.; cabbage:

Brasssica oleracea

L.; cauliflower:

Brassica oleracea

L.; lady’s finger:

Abelmoschus esculentus

L.; Brinjal:

Solanum melongena

L.; tomato:

Lycopersicon esculentum

L.; pumpkin:

Cucurbita maxima

Duch.; radish:

Raphanus sativus

L.; wheat:

Triticum aestivum

L.; rice:

Oryza sativa

L. Adapted from Singh

et al.

(2010). For color details, see color plates section

Chapter 14

Figure 14.1 Concentration levels (ppm dry weight) of selected heavy metals in different vegetable samples grown and sold in Lebanon. Adapted from Al-Chaarani

et al.

(2009). For color details, see color plates section.

Figure 14.2 Mean concentrations (µg g

–1

dry weight) of some heavy metals in selected vegetables from production and market sites of Varanasi, India. Vegetables: palak (

Beta vulagaris

); lady’s finger (

Abelmoschus esculentus

); cauliflower (

Brassica oleracea

). Adapted from Sharma

et al.

(2009). For color details, see color plates section.

Figure 14.3 Daily intake of heavy metals (mg/person/day) in different vegetables as influenced by atmospheric deposition (AD), waste water irrigation (WWI) and a combination of these (AD + WWI). Adapted from Pandey

et al.

(2012). For color details, see color plates section.

Figure 14.4 Concentration of blood-Pb in urban children and adults in different areas. Adapted from Fewtrell

et al.

(2004). Countries involved in each region: Africa-I: Nigeria; Africa-II: South Africa; America-I: Canada, United States; America-II: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Jamaica, Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Peru; Eastern Mediterranean-I: Saudi Arabia; Eastern Mediterranean-II: Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan; Europe-I: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Sweden; Europe-II: Turkey, Yugoslavia; Europe-III: Hungary, Russian Federation. South-East Asia-I: Indonesia, Thailand; South-East Asia-II: Bangladesh, India; Western Pacific-I: Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore; Western Pacific-II: China, Philippines, Republic of Korea.

Chapter 15

Figure 15.1 An overview of the presence of natural and artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere.

Chapter 17

Figure 17.1 Controlled release nanosystems of antimicrobial compounds triggered using different stimuli and incorporated in-package of food matrices to offer protection throughout the shelf-life.

Figure 17.2 In-package immobilized antimicrobial agents using nanoassemblies; direct contact among pathogens and nanosystem is required for action.

Figure 17.3 Bacterial sensor nanosystem activated by the pathogen growth on food surfaces to communicate risk.

Figure 17.4 Colorimetric nanosensor for bacterial growth. When the produce is fresh the label color is (a) green; when the product is contaminated the label color (b) changes to red, communicating risk to consumers or retailers. For color details, see color plates section.

Chapter 18

Figure 18.1 Electromagnetic spectrum with special emphasis on UV light.

Figure 18.2 Inactivation of

Bacillus subtilis

spores on polystyrene as function of the UV-C fluence of CW UV light (o) and PL (•). a.u.: arbitrary units.

Figure 18.3 DNA molecule without (left) and with (right) a cyclobutane thymine dimmer.

Figure 18.4 SEM of

Bacillus subtilis

vegetative cells: (a) untreated samples and (b) treated by 10 J cm

–2

.

Figure 18.5 Schematic representation of a bench-top UV treatment unit.

Figure 18.6 A pulsed right reactor for liquid treatment.

Chapter 20

Figure 20.1 Relationship between temperature and activity of an enzyme.

Figure 20.2 Growth rate of different groups of microorganisms in response to storage temperature

Figure 20.3 Growth curve of microorganisms and different phases

Figure 20.4 Principle and components of a vapour-compression refrigeration set. For color details, see color plates section.

Figure 20.5 Temperature distribution inside refrigerator compartment caused by natural convection.

Figure 20.6 Air flow inside frost-free refrigerator.

Figure 20.7 Storage places of perishable foodstuffs

Figure 20.8 Packaging of perishable foodstuffs

Figure 20.9 Temperature adjustment of domestic refrigerators

Figure 20.10 Reasons for temperature setting by temperature setting (Geppert and Stamminger, 2010)

Figure 20.11 Mean air temperatures in refrigerators (measured; Geppert, 2011)

Figure 20.12 Frequency of door openings per day and household (Geppert and Stamminger, 2010)

Chapter 22

Figure 22.1 Food irradiation and electromagnetic spectrum.

Figure 22.2 In a single-sided e-beam configuration, the linear accelerator delivers fast electrons via the e-beam gun from one side.

Figure 22.3 The three types of ionizing radiation utilized in the food industry: (a) e-beam generated by linear accelerator; (b) x-ray generated by e-beam striking a metal target; and (c) gamma radiation generated by a radioactive isotope emitting gamma rays.

Figure 22.4 Direct effect of microbial inactivation by e-beam targets the genetic material (DNA and RNA) and breaks the base pairs G-C (guanine-cytosine) and T-A (thymine-adenine), resulting in reproductive death of microorganisms.

Figure 22.5 Indirect effect of microbial inactivation by e-beam is due to free radicals that compromise cell membrane. The free radicals are generated from water. Water molecules undergo radiolysis when subjected to e-beam yielding species with unpaired electrons (i.e. free radicals) (adapted from Arena, 1971).

Figure 22.6 Incoming high-energy photons of radiation create the Compton effect, responsible for the increased absorption of e-beam dose under the surface of food products (up to 21 mm).

Figure 22.7 The microbial survivor curve. The D

10

-value is the e-beam dose (kGy) required to kill 1-log (90%) of a microbial population of a given microorganism in a specific food. The D

10

-value can be calculated as an inverse reciprocal of the slope of the survivor curve.

Figure 22.8 The radura sign and the statement ‘treated with radiation’ or ‘treated by irradiation’ must be displayed on the package of e-beam processed food products.

Figure 22.9 A diagram of experimental secondary emission electron gun (SEEG) e-beam including decontamination chamber, wire ion plasma source, secondary emission electron gun, and power systems. Chalise et al., 2007. Reproduced with permission of Wiley.

Chapter 23

Figure 23.1 Overview of inactivation mechanisms of viruses. For color details, see color plates section.

Figure 23.2 Internationally recognized ‘Radura’ logo for irradiated foods

Chapter 25

Figure 25.1 Example of diverse primary model fits for the growth (reparameterized Gompertz equation, upper panel), inhibition (Weibull model, middle panel) and growth/decay phases (Bello and Sanchez Fuertes model, lower panel) of microorganisms as a function of time.

Figure 25.2 Interaction between the different elements of Risk Analyses (FAO/WHO, 2006).

Chapter 26

Figure 26.1 Steps involved in farm-to-fork exposure assessment for poultry meat products (P: prevalent; NM: number of microorganisms).

Chapter 28

Figure 28.1 Schematic representation of coffee production chain

Figure 28.2 Structure of ochratoxin A (OTA)

Figure 28.3 Coffee berries during different maturity stages: (a) greens; (b) half-ripes; (c) ripes; (d) over-ripes; (e) tree-dried; and (f) bult lot. After Velmourougane

et al.

(2006a). For color details, see the color plates section.

Figure 28.4 Drying characteristics of

Arabica

and

Robusta

coffee based on various stages of maturity .

Figure 28.5 Survival of

A. ochraceus

during coffee processing chain (wet processing). After Panneerselvam

et al.

(2005).

Figure 28.6 Drying techniques to prevent OTA mold contamination in coffee: (a) tray drying; (b) covering during night.

Figure 28.7 Methods of moisture measurement in coffee beans at ‘on-farm’ level in India.

Figure 28.8 Comparison of moisture measured through moisture meter and forlit for (a) parchment and (b) cherry. AP and RP:

Arabica

and

Robusta

parchment; AC and RC:

Arabica

and

Robusta

cherry; MC: moisture content; TW: test weight (Forlit weight). After Velmourougane

et al.

(2006a).

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Practical Food Safety: Contemporary Issuesand Future Directions

Editors

Rajeev Bhat

Food Technology Division

School of Industrial Technology

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Penang, Malaysia

Vicente M. Gómez-López

Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del

Segura, (CEBAS-CSIC)

Murcia, Spain

This edition first published 2014 © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Registered OfficeJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Practical food safety : contemporary issues and future directions / editors, Rajeev Bhat and Vicente M. Gómez-López.  p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.

 ISBN 978-1-118-47460-0 (cloth) I. Bhat, Rajeev, editor of compilation. II. Gómez-López, Vicente M., editor of compilation. [DNLM: 1. Food Safety. 2. Food Contamination. WA 695] RA601.5 363.19′26–dc23

2013046826

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

Cover images:Assortment of Vegetables © iStock/ vasilikiScientist picks up bacterial colonies © iStock/ anyaivanovaPesticide Warning Sign © iStock/ alacatrQuality Control © iStock/ MiguelMaloCover design by Meaden Creative.

List of Contributors

Martin Alberer

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany

Emilio Alvarez-Párrilla

Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez (UACJ), Chihuahua, Mexico

Faqir Muhammad Anjum

National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

María Roberta Ansorena

Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria en Alimentos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina

F.N. Arroyo-López

Food Biotechnology Department, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Seville, Spain

Javaid Aziz Awan

National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala

Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

Brita Ball

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

J. Bautista Gallego

DIVAPRA, Agricultural Microbiology and Food Technology Sector, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Turin, Italy

Rajeev Bhat

Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Tejas Bhatt

Institute of Food Technologists, Washington DC, USA

Debabrata Biswas

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, Maryland, USA

Robert Buchanan

Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, Maryland, USA

Suzi Barletto Cavalli

Nutrition Department and Nutrition in Foodservice Research Center (NUPPRE), Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil

Neeraj Dangi

Department of Business Sustainability, Department of Policy Studies, TERI University, New Delhi, India

Laura de la Rosa

Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez (UACJ), Chihuahua, Mexico

Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira

Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Shuvra K. Dey

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, Maryland, USA

Ismaïl Fliss

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Angela M. Fraser

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

R.M. García-Gimeno

Department of Food Science and Technology, International Campus of Excellence in the Agri Food Sector, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain

A. Garrido Fernández

Food Biotechnology Department, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Seville, Spain

Jasmin Geppert

Section Household and Appliance Technology, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Vicente M. Gómez-López

Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia, Spain

Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

T.N. Gopinandhan

Analytical Laboratory, Coffee Board, Bangalore, India

Miao Hong

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China

Jacek Jaczynski

Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA

Julie Jean

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Ian Jenson

Meat and Livestock Australia, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

John Langbridge

Australian Meat Industry Council, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia

Jean Guy Le Blanc

Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA-CONICET), San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina

Thomas Löscher

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany

Sameeh A. Mansour

Environmental Toxicology Research Unit (ETRU), Pesticide Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Kristen E. Matak

Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA

Karl R. Matthews

Department of Food Science, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, State University of New Jersey, NJ, USA

Jennifer McEntire

The Acheson Group, Frankfort, IL, USA

Caroline Opolski Medeiros

Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil

Robin Mesnage

University of Caen, CRIIGEN and Pole Risk MRSH-CNRS, Caen Cedex, France

Cortney Miller

Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

Alejandra de Moreno de Le Blanc

Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA-CONICET), San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina

Sapna A. Narula

Department of Business Sustainability, TERI University, New Delhi, India

Zhu Pan

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China

Muhammad Atif Randhawa

National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Salim-ur-Rehman

National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Elisabete Salay

Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil

Gilles-Éric Séralini

University of Caen, CRIIGEN and Pole Risk MRSH-CNRS, Caen Cedex, France

István Siró

Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Plc., Budapest, Hungary

Rainer Stamminger

Section Household and Appliance Technology, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

John Sumner

Meat and Livestock Australia, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Reza Tahergorabi

Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov

Department of Food Science and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

A. Valero

Department of Food Science and Technology, International Campus of Excellence in the AgriFood Sector, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain

Paul Vanderlinde

Residues and Microbiological Policy, Department of Agriculture, Hamilton, Queensland, Australia

Kulandaivelu Velmourougane

Central Institute for Cotton Research, ICAR, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Allison Vimont

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Michael Walker

Laboratory of the Government Chemist, Teddington, Middlesex, UK

Anne Wilcock

Department of Marketing and Consumer Studies, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Yiu-chung Wong

Government Laboratory, Homantin Government Offices, Hong Kong, China

Cui Xia

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China

Hongshun Yang

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, Maryland, USA

Wu Yongning

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China

Foreword

The food system is becoming more international at an increasingly rapid pace. Demand for fresh produce out of season and exotic ingredients combined with perceptions of lower-cost food production outside developed economies have contributed to the growth in international food trade. This ground-breaking book explores the numerous factors contributing to food safety on a global scale. While consumers may desire a wide variety of foods at low prices, there is an alternate movement to select local foods despite possible higher costs. Editors Rajeev Bhat and Vicente M. Gómez-López have recruited an international panel of experts to address the many facets of international food safety. The first six chapters provide broad perspectives on consumer beliefs, successful food safety education programs, and product traceability. Education is critical for the success of any tracing system.

Few consumers understand that eating is not a risk-free activity. Among the potential chemical risks to human health are pesticides, heavy metals, and radionuclides that can occur in foods due to poor agricultural procedures or natural environmental contamination. Genetically modified foods may contribute pesticides by their pest-control design. The melamine scandal in China is used in this text as a case study for intentional chemical contamination of foods and the steps needed to prevent such a tragedy in the future. Many naturally occurring compounds in plant foods have health benefits, but consumers may not be aware that the same chemicals may impair growth in children or have other serious health consequences. Microbial contamination of foods is likely the foremost safety concern of today’s consumers. An often-overlooked food safety issue is the acquisition of foodborne infections and intoxications during international travel. Mycotoxins represent an unseen threat to foods and feed; this potential class of contaminants can fortunately be controlled. This has been addressed and provided as a case study in coffee.

Despite media stories that depict food technology as a sinister threat to food wholesomeness, emerging technologies aim to improve future food safety. The challenge for the food industry will be to educate the public about technologies such as nanotechnology and symbiotics. Explaining the scientific basis for the benefits of these new tools in a consumer-friendly manner will be essential to prevent the public backlash that genetically modified foods have endured. Other processes used to reduce microbial contamination such as cold temperature storage, electron beams, and pulsed light are the subjects of additional chapters. The important role of packaging in food safety is not overlooked; intelligent packaging may increase consumer comfort with processed food safety. The book concludes with practical approaches for reducing foodborne illness risks in animal products.

I congratulate the editors and authors for presenting a timely summary of the scope of international food safety issues. This book is a must-read for educators, processors, and regulators.

Mary Ellen Camire, PhD, CFSPresident-elect, Institute of Food TechnologistsProfessor, Food Science and Human NutritionSchool of Food and AgricultureUniversity of Maine, Orono, ME

Preface

The past decade has seen an upsurge in global interest of various aspects pertaining towards enhancement of food safety and security. With increasing knowledge of food safety, the world is witnessing tremendous efforts in improving the well-being of mankind. A rise in food safety concerns is a direct reflection of major global awareness in agro-foods sectors in world trade. Several recommendations have been made by various governing bodies and committees to solve food safety issues, which are all mainly aimed at benefiting consumers. In the present world scenario, note that that economic loss and instability due to food safety issues can have a high impact on particular nations.

Various risk factors are involved in food safety as a wide range of commodities are involved, such as: fresh fruits, vegetables, seafood, poultry and poultry products, and meat and meat products. Rapid efforts are being made globally to develop novel environmentally friendly techniques for maintaining the quality of perishable foods and agricultural commodities. Food safety issues involve a wide array of aspects involving: food processing, packaging, transportation, microbial contamination, development and application of novel technologies for post-harvest preservation, presence of food additives and banned chemicals, functional foods, and adoption of HACCP, GAP, and GMP approaches. Apart from these, rapid changes in climatic conditions can also play a pivotal role in food safety issues. To effectively manage a food safety system, proper designing, planning, and execution of representative laws are vital and need to be supported by new research policy inputs. New safety measures with impressive research themes are regularly proposed worldwide by government and non-government organizations and policy makers. It is therefore necessary that consumers are educated about relevant measures via use of appropriate media.

The present book was planned and designed to address the vital issues of food safety including present concerns and the practical application of laboratory- (desk-) generated knowledge. Leading experts and researchers from all over the world have contributed significantly to this book, which has a wide coverage based on emerging and urgent topics pertaining to food safety issues. As well as covering the classic topics required for food safety, this book encompasses the most recent updates, addresses emerging issues, and presents novel research findings that can influence the future world.

This multi-faceted book covers many aspects such as educating consumers (consumer perceptions and practices, food safety training, product tracing systems, global food market analysis), chemical issues (chemical measurements, protection along agri-food chain, pesticide residues and toxicity, the need for visualizing pesticide toxicity during GMO assessment, melamine contamination, heavy metal residues, radionuclides, antinutrients), application of modern preservation technologies (nanotechnology, photonic methods, intelligent packaging, cold storage, use of electron beams), microbiological issues (inactivation of foodborne viruses, use of symbiotics, predictive microbiology), and product-specific food safety issues (poultry and poultry products, meat and meat products, mycotoxins in coffee).

We the editors thank our distinguished authors and the staff of Wiley Publishing for their vital contributions. Special thanks are due to David McDade, Senior Commissioning Editor of Wiley-Blackwell, United Kingdom for his support. We are also grateful to our individual family members for their immense support and patience, and we dedicate this book to them with much love and affection.

Rajeev BhatVicente M. Gómez-López

1Food Safety: A Global Perspective

Karl R. Matthews

Department of Food Science, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, NJUSA

Summary

The safety of food supply is of global concern and requires the commitment of all countries. A major reason countries import and export food is to satisfy consumer demand. Foodborne illnesses may be linked to the consumption of foods whether grown and manufactured domestically or imported. Global food safety standards are required to ensure that food will not be injurious to health regardless of its origin.

1.1 Introduction

The safety of the food supply greatly influences consumers globally. In developed countries consumers desire, even demand, products year-round regardless of the growing season of those commodities. In order to fulfill those demands, companies source products from throughout the world. The production and processing practices in developing countries may not achieve appropriate safety levels however, placing consumers within that country and throughout the world at risk of illness through export of those commodities. Many developed countries have elaborate standards and guidelines to enhance the safety of food produced domestically. Human health problems arise when best practices are not used throughout the farm to plate continuum, regardless of where the food is produced.

A plethora of factors come into play when attempting to ensure the safety of the food supply. Food safety typically relates to ensuring that food is free of pathogenic microorganisms or chemical contaminates that can negatively impact human health. The safety of the food supply is affected by food security and food fraud. Food security is a social issue in developing countries; in an effort to meet the needs of the country, food that is marginal with respect to safety may be placed into commerce and consumed. Food fraud does not always have food safety implications; however, most cases of adulteration typically involve the addition of illegal substances to food.

Government agencies strive to ensure the safety of food through national and import monitoring programs to enforce standards. Private organizations lead by the Global Food Safety Initiative, which has five benched-marked audit schemes (Safe Quality Food, British Retail Consortium, Food Safety System Certification, International Featured Standards and CanadaGAP), are accepted internationally and have emerged to bolster consumer confidence in food supply. Ensuring safety and maintaining control of a product means that audits must also be applied to members of the supply chain. Low consumer confidence in the safety of food is not confined to developed or developing countries. For example, China is becoming a major food exporter and in recent years has established three new government agencies: the State Council Food Safety Commission, the Food Safety Risk Evaluation Committee and the Food Safety Standard Examination Committee. The changes were initiated following a litany of domestic (illegally recycled cooking oil) to international (melamine in milk powder and infant formula) food safety scares. All countries continue to develop and implement new laws and regulations, striving to keep abreast of the changing face of the food industry.

1.2 National and global food safety events

In order to gain a perspective of the state of global food safety and the direction in which it is heading, past events that have shaped government and consumer response must be considered. For the most part, many of the major food safety scares are associated with intentionally adulterated or microbiologically contaminated products.

The chemical plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in an emulsifier used in powdered yogurt mix, fruit jellies and some juices and drinks produced in Taiwan. Products containing the toxic chemical were exported throughout the world. Taiwanese food regulation prohibits the use of DEHP in food.

The Chinese melamine milk scandal occurred in 2007/08, negatively impacting human and domesticated animal health globally. Melamine and other compounds including cyanuric acid were added to the milk to give the appearance of having higher protein content when tested. In China alone, at least six infants died, 800 people were hospitalized and approximately 300,000 were sickened (Gale and Buzby, 2009; Ibens, 2009). In the United States, melamine-tainted wheat gluten and rice protein imported from China and used to make pet food caused at least 17,000 pet illnesses and 4000 dog and cat deaths (FDA, 2009). Following consumption of the contaminated food, animals developed symptoms including lethargy, vomiting, loss of appetite and ultimately death. Kidney damage was apparent in affected animals, the result of the formation of insoluble crystal forming when combining melamine and cyanuric acid.

At the opposite end of the spectrum, food safety perceptions can also be shaped by the popular press and lack of consumer knowledge. In 2012 in the US, reports that ‘pink slime’ was being added to ground beef resulted in a public outcry followed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) statements assuring the public that the product was safe (Stevens, 2012). The product is actually lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that is made from beef trimmings treated with ammonium hydroxide. The LFTB is pink in colour and has a thick viscous texture. Consumers focused only on ‘slime’ and ‘ammonium’ and perceived the product to be unsafe. The USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) and the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) consider ammonium hydroxide as a ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ food additive.

The safety of imported products is questioned by consumers throughout the world. Products produced using acceptable production practices in their home country may be rejected by an importing country which has stricter food safety regulations. Regulatory agencies screen imported products to ensure they meet standards of that country. The US imports approximately 80% of all seafood consumed in the US. Fish farming is a growing industry, encompassing commodities from shrimp to tilapia. Integrated fish farming is practised in some countries where, for example, poultry are raised in structures floating on or over fish pounds. The poultry faeces drop into the water and serve as feed for the fish. The faeces may contain pathogenic bacteria that present a human health risk. Depending on production practices, antibiotics may be included in the water or feed provided to the poultry, which may precipitate the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The shipments of such farm-raised fish to the US checked by the FDA are frequently contaminated (Buzby et al., 2008; Gale and Buzby, 2009).

Innovative measures are often employed to ensure safety and reduce the likelihood of human illness associated with consumption of a given commodity. In 2012, the USFDA urged restaurants and food outlets to stop selling all fresh, frozen and canned oysters, clams and mussels from South Korea since such products may have been exposed to human faecal waste and contaminated with noro-virus. The shellfish are grown in natural inlets along the southern coast of South Korea. The workers on those fish farms live on boats and were releasing sewage into the production water. In response, South Korea developed floating toilets to be used by workers on the seafood farms. In this instance, the nation’s food safety agencies worked with the shellfish industry to develop methods that would improve the safety of the product, preserving the industry and export potential of the product.

1.3 Foodborne illness outbreaks: imports and exports

Depending on the type of foodborne illness outbreak, the emergence of a new food safety risk may be signalled. The large 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak that was centred in Germany resulted in more than 4000 illness, over 850 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome and 54 deaths (Frank et al., 2011). The outbreak was linked to the consumption of fenugreek sprouts; the epidemiological investigation suggested the seeds were contaminated with the pathogen which grew during sprout production. The fact that sprouts were linked to the outbreak was not remarkable. Seed sprout production practices are conducive to the growth of enteric pathogens. The pathogen E. coli O104:H4 had only been linked previously to one foodborne outbreak of limited magnitude. This outbreak may represent the emergence of a new foodborne pathogen.

Approximately three decades ago in the US, a large outbreak was associated with the consumption of undercooked ground beef. The causative agent was E. coli O157:H7, which had not been previously recognized as a foodborne pathogen. Now E. coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern in the US and globally.

A devastating Listeria monocytogenes outbreak occurred in the US in 2011, causing 146 cases and 43 deaths (CDC, 2012). The outbreak was linked to the consumption of cantaloupe, although no previous L. monocytogenes outbreaks in the US had resulted from cantaloupe. A clear determination in how the cantaloupe became contaminated was not made. However, the outbreak underscores that a food may become contaminated with a pathogen even although that pathogen may not be traditionally associated with that food.

Consumer interest in the safety of imported foods increases when outbreaks occur, even when those foodborne illness outbreaks are associated with domestically produced commodities. The importation of food continues to increase in the US and other developed countries. In 2009, imports accounted for 17% of the food consumed in the US. In the US approximately 80% of the fish and shellfish consumed is imported, while nearly 34% of fruits and vegetables consumed are imported (USDA ERS, 2012). The continued increase in imports is associated with growing ethnic diversity and consumer preference for a wider selection of food products such as premium coffee, cheeses, processed meats and tropical fruit (USDA ERS, 2012). Tropical products (bananas, cocoa, spices), olive oil and cashew nuts are nearly 100% imported since domestic-produced products is close to 0%. In the US, imports of poultry meat, eggs, milk and pork is low; indeed, only 3% of head lettuce is imported. A similar import pattern has emerged in the European Union (EU) (Jaud et al., 2013).