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Sport and Exercise Psychology: Practitioner Case Studies focuses on the most current issues in the field, integrating research and practice to develop a coherent understanding of current knowledge, future research directions and applied implications within the field. This is the first book to include theory-based case studies for sport performance, exercise and skill acquisition in one publication. This text provides content that is directly applicable to those students wishing to enter the profession via various national accreditation schemes, in addition to providing chartered psychologists with a text that can directly inform their reflections of their own practice. Sport and Exercise Psychology is supported by an online learning environment that includes 'talking heads' videos for each chapter, further resources, questions and links to relevant external materials.

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Sport and Exercise Psychology

PRACTITIONER CASE STUDIES

EDITED BY

STEWART COTTERILL

University of Winchester

NEIL WESTON

University of Portsmouth

GAVIN BRESLIN

Ulster University

This edition first published 2017 by the British Psychological Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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The right of Stewart Cotterill, Neil Weston, and Gavin Breslin to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Cotterill, Stewart, editor. | Breslin, Gavin, editor. Title: Sport and Exercise Psychology : practitioner case studies/edited by Stewart Cotterill, University of     Winchester, Neil Weston, University of Portsmouth, Gavin Breslin, University of Ulster. Description: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017. | Series: BPS Textbooks     in Psychology | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016006535 (print) | LCCN 2016012849 (ebook) |     ISBN 9781118686522 (cloth) | ISBN 9781118686546 (paper) | ISBN 9781118686508     (pdf) | ISBN 9781118686515 (epub) Subjects: LCSH: Sports—Psychological aspects—Case studies. | Exercise—Psychological     aspects—Case studies. Classification: LCC GV706.4 .S646 2017 (print) | LCC GV706.4 (ebook) | DDC 796.01/9—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016006535

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Getty/©stefanschurr

The British Psychological Society's free Research Digest e-mail service rounds up the latest research and relates it to your syllabus in a user-friendly way. To subscribe go to www.researchdigest.org.uk or send a blank e-mail to [email protected]

CONTENTS

About the Contributors

Acknowledgements

Stewart

Neil

Gavin

About the Companion Website

Part 1 Sport and Performance Psychology

1 Introduction

Introduction to the book

The nature of applied work in sport and exercise psychology

Overview of the book

2 Managing Difficult Interpersonal Relationships: A Basic Psychological Needs Approach

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

3 The Use of Team Strengths at a Major Championship

Client and background

The sport and its competitive structure

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

4 Concentration and Optimal Performance Under Pressure

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

5 A Search for Meaning: An Integrative Approach to Stress Management Following a Career-ending Injury

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

6 Personality and Group Functioning: Managing a Narcissist's Ego

Introduction

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Notes

Further reading

References

7 Returning to Sport Following Serious Injury: A Case Study of a Professional Rugby Union Player

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Reflections

Further reading

References

8 Transition Indecision: A Case Study of an Athlete’s Move from Playing to Coaching

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

9 Ahead of the Competition: Anxiety Control in Archery

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

Part 2 Coaching Psychology

10 Impression Management in Professional Football: A Case Study from the Coach’s Perspective

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

AcknowledgEments

Further reading

References

11 Managing Coach Stress in Teams Through Enhanced Role Clarity and Communication

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Acknowledgement

Further reading

References

12 Training a Coach to be Autonomy-Supportive:: An Avenue for Nurturing Mental Toughness

Introduction

Client and background

A brief definition and conceptualization of mental toughness

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

13 Creating a Successful and Effective Coaching Environment through Interpersonal Sports Coaching

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

Part 3 Motor Learning and Control

14 The Role of Psychology in Enhancing Skill Acquisition and Expertise in High Performance Programmes

Clients and background

Framework and interventions

Reflections

Note

Further reading

References

15 Developing Motor Skill in Practice: A Case of Mastering ‘Heelflips’

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Effective feedback

Reflections

Acknowledgements

Note

Further reading

References

16 Improving Anticipation in Racket Sports: An Evidence-based Intervention

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

Part 4 Psychology of Physical Activity and Exercise

17    Promoting Physical Activity in Ireland: A Case Study of All Island All Active (AIAA)

Client and background

Reflections

Further reading

References

18 Athlete Wellbeing

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further Reading

References

19 Physical Activity and Self-concept: A Humanistic Intervention

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

20    Developing a School-based Physical Activity Protocol for Those with Intellectual Disabilities

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Benefits of participating in PE

Reflections

Further reading

References

21 Exercise and Body Image

Client and background

Defining body image

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Summary

Further reading

References

22 Physical Activities to Improve Children's Health (PATCH): Implementing a School-Based Intervention for Children

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

23 Contemporary Lifestyle Interventions for Public Health – Potential Roles for Professional Sports Clubs

Client and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

24 Exercise Dependence

Hypothetical Clients and background

Initial needs assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

25 Long-term Behaviour Change Through an Exercise Intervention During Breast Cancer Treatment

Client and background

Recruitment and assessment

Framework and intervention

Reflections

Further reading

References

Index

EULA

List of Tables

Chapter 3

Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Chapter 4

Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Chapter 6

Table 6.1

Chapter 10

Table 10.1

Table 10.2

Table 10.3

Table 10.4

Chapter 11

Table 11.1

Chapter 12

Table 12.1

Table 12.2

Chapter 13

Table 13.1

Chapter 14

Table 14.1

Table 14.2

Chapter 15

Table 15.1

Chapter 16

Table 16.1

Table 16.2

Table 16.3

Chapter 17

Table 17.1

Table 17.2

Chapter 20

Table 20.1

Chapter 21

Table 21.1

Chapter 25

Table 25.1

Table 25.2

Table 25.3

Table 25.4

List of Illustrations

Chapter 3

Figure 3.1

Exemplar strengths poster layout

Figure 3.2

‘Reality check’ of applied practice

Chapter 4

Figure 4.1

MBTi personality types

Chapter 6

Figure 6.1

Pre-intervention team performance profile.

Figure 6.2

Post intervention team performance profile.

Figure 6.3

Cycle of self-reflection (Gibbs 1988).

Figure 6.4

Coach and player ratings from the Sport Psychology Consultant Evaluation Form.

Chapter 7

Figure 7.1

The Skilled-Helper Model (Egan, 2002)

Chapter 10

Figure 10.1

Strengths, qualities, and attributes identified by client during ‘strengths categorization’ activity.

Figure 10.2

State space grid depicting behaviours exhibited by the client and one of his players during the course of a 1-minute dyadic interaction within the second observed coaching session.Note: observed behaviour is in the ‘congruent-attentive/engaged’quadrant 61% of the time, and in the ‘incongruent-distracted/disengaged’quadrant 17% of the time.

Figure 10.3

State space grid depicting behaviours exhibited by the client and one of his players during the course of a 1-minute dyadic interaction within the fifth observed coaching session.Note: observed behaviour is in the ‘congruent-attentive/engaged’ quadrant 72% of the time, and in the ‘incongruent-distracted/disengaged’ quadrant just 4% of the time.

Chapter 12

Figure 12.1

Roger’s proposed plan for implementing coaching behaviours that support athletes’ need for autonomy.

Figure 12.2

Roger’s proposed plan for implementing coaching behaviours that support athletes’ need for autonomy and competence

Figure 12.3

Athletes’ perceptions of needs-supportive coaching environments over time.

Figure 12.4

Athletes’ perceptions of needs-thwarting coaching environments over time.

Figure 12.5

Athletes’ perceptions of psychological needs satisfaction over time

Figure 12.6

Athletes’ perceptions of psychological needs thwarting over time.

Figure 12.7

Athletes’ self-reported levels of mental toughness over time.

Chapter 13

Figure 13.1

Representation of Jim’s and his athletes’ scores on the direct and meta CART-Q.

Figure 13.2

Actual similarity in the coach-athlete relationship between Jim and his athletes.

Figure 13.3

Assumed similarity in the coach-athlete relationship from the perspective of his athletes.

Figure 13.4

Assumed similarity in the coach-athlete relationship from Jim’s perspective.

Figure 13.5

The degree to which Jim understands his athletes’ perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

Figure 13.6

The degree to which athletes understands Jim’s perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

Figure 13.7

Communication strategies employed by Jim and his athletes.

Chapter 14

Figure 14.1

Integration of video images with ball projection technology to help a cricketer learn how to use anticipation processes from pre-ball flight information from a bowler in co-ordinating their actions.

Figure 14.2

Media documentation of assumptions of sport practitioners and common misconceptions of the role of ball projection machines. Note that in the first example, it is clear that the ball projection machine is being used to practise a variety of interceptive actions (fielding practice as well as batting). Regardless, the same problem arises in that affordances for a batting action are not provided for fielders to learn to anticipate characteristics of a stroke (e.g., anticipating impending ball trajectory from speed and angle of bat orientation). In the third example the notion that ball projection technology can be used to practise against specific opponents is a misconception. Without pre-flight information, the actions of a specific bowler cannot be factored into this practice aim. We have limited our analysis to exemplar sources in England and Australia in the past six years.

Figure 14.3

Frequency of completed, uncomfortable, and baulked dives by four elite springboard divers over a 12-week training intervention.

Figure 14.4

Performance scores of intervention (reverse) and control (back) dives of four elite springboard divers over a 12-week training intervention.

Chapter 16

Figure 16.1

Static frames as examples of various temporal occlusion points that may be employed in a forehand passing shot simulation.

Figure 16.2

Temporal occlusion assessment results (response accuracy) for time points before and at racket-ball contact.

Figure 16.3

Examples of spatial occlusion conditions that may be employed in a tennis player hitting a forehand passing shot.

Figure 16.4

Spatial occlusion assessment results (response accuracy) when various body parts, racket, and ball are occluded from the display.

Figure 16.5

Eye-movement data (percentage viewing time) as a function of different body-racket locations.

Chapter 17

Figure 17.1

Enabling platform using the docking station metaphor for project development, delivery and evaluation.

Chapter 18

Figure 18.1

A simplified continuum of functioning and wellbeing as a metaphor for locating the focus of positive psychology within applied psychology activities.

Chapter 20

Figure 20.1

Circuit training layout of the fitness test protocol.

Figure 20.2

Speed and co-ordination test

Chapter 22

Figure 22.1

Outlining the matching of SCT components with the PATCH intervention.

Figure 22.2 (a)

Example of physical activity break taken from the intervention teacher's physical activity resource booklet.

Figure 22.2 (b)

Example of physical activity break taken from the interactive whiteboard PowerPoint and video demonstration package.

Figure 22.2 (c)

Example of a parent and guardian newsletter.

Figure 22.3

Figure displaying participant flow through the study, with outcome measures.

Chapter 23

Figure 23.1

Social determinant of health model.

Figure 23.2

Fans4Life programme pathway

Chapter 25

Figure 25.1

Effect estimates (Exercise – Control) with 95% confidence intervals and p-values for outcome variables at (a) the 12 week assessment, and (b) the 6 month follow-up assessment, expressed in units of one standard deviation (SD) of the outcome distributions, based on mixed effects models adjusting for baseline values, study site, therapy at baseline and age.

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About the Contributors

Peter Aitken is the Manager of the Bristol Rovers Community Trust. He is a Welsh footballer who played nearly 300 games in the Football League. Peter is a former Gas Head, having played for Bristol Rovers for over eight years and also saw time with Bristol City, York City, Bath City, Bournemouth, Gloucester City, Trowbridge Town, and Forest Green Rovers. In his free time he is a keen golfer.

Colin Baker is a Research Fellow in the School of Sport and Exercise at the University of Gloucestershire. He has extensive applied experience of research and consultancy projects for local government, the NHS, and national sport organizations. His current research interests include sports clubs as health promotion settings, new forms of commissioning in health and factors determining partnership success in sport and physical activity.

Sian Barris is a Biomechanist with the South Australian Sports Institute, having completed her doctorate with the Australian Institute of Sport Diving Programme at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. She has published research studies in biomechanics, performance analysis, and skill acquisition, and presented at national and international conferences on these topics. She currently works with multiple Olympic sports and is interested in the application of skill acquisition and biomechanics concepts in representative training environments.

Joanne Batey is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Psychology at the University of Winchester, UK. She is also a BASES Accredited Chartered Scientist. She has worked in a variety of sports with athletes of varying ages and abilities. Much of her recent applied work has been focused on working with military teams.

Abbe Brady is a Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology at the University of Gloucestershire. She is also a HCPC registered sport and exercise psychologist, and a BASES accredited sport and exercise scientist. She has worked with a range of amateur and professional coaches, teams and individual athletes, and parents to design and provide educational sports programmea, and/or intervention programmes and support through sport psychology. This support has transcended all levels of performance from grassroots to Paralympic/Olympic standards.

Deirdre Brennan is Professor of Physical Education and Sport at Ulster University and Director of Ulster Sports Outreach. She has extensive experience in public and community engagement using sport and physical activity. She has designed award-winning physical activity and sport interventions for a range of populations from primary-school aged children to hard-to-reach youth at risk. Her current interests are in university knowledge transfer and engaging in research designed for impact.

Gavin Breslin is a Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology in the Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute at Ulster University, Northern Ireland a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (Health Care Professions Council) and a Chartered Psychologist (British Psychological Society). He has extensive applied research and teaching experience in a wide range of sports at a national and international level. His current research interests include the psychology of human performance, motor learning, health behaviour change, and, physical activity and psychological wellbeing.

Anna Campbell is Reader in Clinical Exercise Science at Edinburgh Napier University. Anna is also Physical Activity Advisor to the charity Macmillan Cancer Support and Director of CanRehab which provides training courses to move research into practice with allied health professionals and fitness instructors. Her research interests include examining the physiological, functional, and psychological impact of physical activity interventions on cancer survivorship.

Fiona Chambers is the Director for Sports Studies and Physical Education in the School of Education at University College Cork. She is a Senior Lecturer in Education (Sports Studies and Physical Education). Prior to this role, she worked in the banking sector for six years and then, for 12 years taught physical education, biology, and science at secondary-school level. Fiona’s main research interest is in initial and career-long professional learning for PE teachers and its impact on young people’s learning in PE and sport. Fiona has a particular interest in the role of mentor education in developing the pedagogies that PE teachers need to use sport effectively to promote the health and wellbeing of pupils.

Stewart Cotterill is Head of Department for Sport and Exercise at the University of Winchester, a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (HCPC), a Chartered Psychologist, and BASES accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist. He has extensive applied experience in a wide range of sports at a national and international level. Stewart is also Reader in Sport and Performance Psychology at the University of Winchester. His current research interests include the psychology of performance, leadership in sport, factors determining team performance and professional practice in sport and exercise psychology. He is also author of Team Psychology in Sports: Theory and Practice (2013).

Diane Crone is Professor of Exercise Science at the University of Gloucestershire. She has considerable applied experience in the design, delivery, and evaluation of health-promoting interventions in primary care and in the community. Her current research interests include the use of purposeful activity for health improvement (arts and physical activity), the role of exercise in the treatment of mental health problems, and new approaches to developing active environments across Europe.

Conor Cunningham is Research fellow in Physical Activity in the School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Biomedical Sciences at Queens University Belfast. Conor completed his PhD studies on children’s physical activity and health at Ulster University.

Keith Davids is Professor of Motor Learning at the Centre for Sports Engineering Research, Sheffield Hallam University, UK and holds the position of Finnish Distinguished Professor at the University of Jyvaskyla in Finland. He has extensive experience as a researcher and consultant with high-performance sport organizations in New Zealand (NZ South Island Academy), Australia (Australian Institute of Sport, Cricket Australia, Diving Australia and the Queensland Academy of Sport), and England (English Institute of Sport). His research, in ecological dynamics, examines movement co-ordination and its acquisition with respect to individual and team-sport environments.

Chelsey Dempsey is currently a PhD candidate in the School of Sport, Health, and Exercise Science at Bangor University. She is researching the complex reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy and performance, specifically, the moderators that effect this relationship. Chelsey’s other research interests include self-regulation and performance, and psychophysiological measures of effort and anxiety. Chelsey’s applied work has been across a variety of sports, including professional basketball, Canadian college ice hockey, Team GB Winter Olympic squads, and elite youth swimming.

Lynne Evans is a Reader in Sport Psychology and Research Excellence Framework (REF) Co-ordinator in the Cardiff School of Sport at Cardiff Metropolitan University. For the last 20 years she has combined her commitment to high-quality research (primarily in the psychology of injuries) with her passion for applied work. She is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology and an Editorial Board Member of The Sport Psychologist. As a BPS Chartered Sport Psychologist and Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (HCPC) she provides sport psychology support to a variety of national sport organizations, NGB’s and high-performance athletes.

Ben Lee Fitzpatrick is a Research Associate within the School of Sport at Ulster University and a Registered Nurse specializing in acute medical care. He has worked with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) for over 15 years in various capacities and has applied experience in physical activity, sport and exercise in the community. His current research interests include physical activity levels of vulnerable groups, the relationship between physical activity and psychological wellbeing, and the barriers that prevent vulnerable people leading healthier lives.

Sandy Gordon is a Professor of Sport and Exercise Psychology at the University of Western Australia, Registered Sport Psychologist (WA), Fellow Member of the Australian Psychological Society (APS), and Member of the APS College of Sport and Exercise Psychologists (CoSEP) and Interest Group in Coaching Psychology (IGCP). His current research interests include mental toughness, psychology and sport injury, and applications of positive psychology in both health and sport settings.

Daniel Greenwood is a Senior Skill Acquisition Scientist at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). Daniel has worked in applied sport science settings for a decade with roles at the Singapore Sport Council and Queensland Academy of Sport before returning to the AIS in 2014. Daniel has worked at an international level with a variety of team and individual sports, including working with multiple track and field Olympic medalists at the London Olympics in 2012. His current research interests include the combination of coach and scientist knowledge to drive understanding of behaviour in applied contexts, visual regulation of performance, and the representative design of training environments.

Daniel Gucciardi is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Australia. He has published widely on mental toughness in sport, the most significant of these outputs being lead co-editor for the first research book and author of the mental toughness entry in the first Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology (Eklund & Tenenbaum, 2014). Daniel was the co-recipient of the Australian Psychological Society Early Career Research Award for 2013.

Bruce Hale is a Professor of Kinesiology at Penn State University. He has been performance-enhancement consulting for 35 years with hundreds of athletes in junior and collegiate sports, several professional teams, and elite national teams such as USA Wrestling, British Biathlon, USA Rowing, TAC, and USA Rugby. He has published two textbooks, a dozen book chapters, and over 35 research articles in sport and exercise psychology. In the area of exercise dependence in bodybuilders, Bruce has published six articles and five chapters.

Richard Hampson is a sport psychologist working with GB Canoeing. He holds an MSc from Loughborough University, and currently works with the GB Canoe Slalom and Paracanoe teams. He has a range of applied experience including work in professional golf, windsurfing and professional football and rowing.

Chris Harwood is a Reader in Applied Sport Psychology at Loughborough University. He is a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (HCPC), Chartered Psychologist, and BASES High Performance Sport Accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist. His research interests focus on the psychological aspects of youth sport with a particular focus on the psychology of parenting and coaching. A former Vice President of FEPSAC, Chris is currently the Chair of the Psychology Division for BASES. As a consultant in sport psychology, he has worked extensively with the Lawn Tennis Association, the Football Association, and several professional football clubs. He holds fellowships of both AASP and BASES for his contributions to applied sport psychology and sport science.

Kate Hefferon is a Senior Lecturer and Chartered Research Psychologist at the University of East London. She has worked on several projects aimed at understanding the links between wellbeing and physical activity within normal and clinical populations. Her research interests lie within the areas of posttraumatic growth, resilience, embodiment, physical activity, and wellbeing.

David Hendry is a doctoral candidate working in the motor skills laboratory at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. His main research interests lie in the development of sports expertise, skill acquisition, and sports coaching. He completed his undergraduate degree in Sport Science from Edinburgh Napier University and his MSc in Kinesiology from the University of British Columbia. David has also operated as an elite level soccer coach with Glasgow Rangers FC and the Scottish FA.

Nicola Hodges is a Professor in the School of Kinesiology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. She runs the Motor Skills Lab. which is funded through all three tri-council agencies in Canada (CIHR, NSERC, and SSHRC). She studies processes of motor learning and control and expert performance. Her work looking at practice behaviours involves laboratory experiments and survey work with beginners and elite sports performers. She is in the High Performance Athlete Development Research group of the Canadian Olympic Sport Organization, Own-The-Podium.

Tim Holder is Senior Lecturer in Coaching and Performance at the Institute of Coaching and Performance at the University of Central Lancashire. He is an HCPC Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist, British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist, a Chartered Scientist, and a British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist. Tim has worked with a number of national governing bodies of sport providing psychological support including table tennis, amateur boxing, swimming, sailing, and synchronized swimming in addition to a range of individual performers across varied individual and team sports. He has worked as a sport psychologist at two Olympic Games and numerous World and European Championships. His research interests include the use of observations in applied practice, coaching, and skill acquisition.

Sophia Jowett is a Reader in Psychology within the School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences at Loughborough University. She is a BPS chartered psychologist with the Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Her main research interests revolve around interpersonal relationships in sport with an emphasis on coaching relationships. More recently this work has started to make an impact on other life domains including work (business, organizations) and education (primary and secondary schools). This research is orientated towards ‘making a difference’ through generating knowledge and understanding the effectiveness of quality relationships.

John Kremer is an Honorary Research Fellow at Queen’s University Belfast where he previously lectured in Applied Psychology for over 30 years. He is a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist and has either co-authored and/or co-edited a number of texts in sport and exercise psychology. John continues to work with a number of teams and individuals across a wide range of sports.

Keith Lohse is an Assistant Professor in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. He is the principal investigator of the Motor Learning Laboratory and teaches courses on neuromotor control, learning, and biostatistics. His current research focuses on modelling how the dose of physical practice relates to improvements in physical therapy and the use of play/games to facilitate motor learning and rehabilitation.

Elizabeth Loughren is a Research Fellow in the School of Sport and Exercise at the University of Gloucestershire. She has extensive applied experience in health promotion interventions including workplace wellbeing and Arts-on-referral. Her current research interests include the relationship between physical activity and wellbeing, behaviour change, and the use of online technology for physical activity and health promotion.

Ruth Lowry is a Senior Lecturer in Exercise Psychology at the University of Chichester, a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (HCPC), Chartered Psychologist and a Chartered Scientist. She has experience of health promotion intervention evaluation and training of fitness professionals in relation to psychological aspects of physical activity and exercise. Ruth’s current research interests include the social influences on health behaviour change, motivation towards physical activity, exercise-related body image issues and the use of drumming for health and wellbeing.

John Mahoney is a doctoral researcher jointly enrolled at the School of Human Movement Studies at the University of Queensland and the School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Birmingham, as well as a practising psychologist in Australia. He also holds lecturing positions at the Australian Catholic University and the Australian Institute for Applied Counsellors. John’s key research interest regards the role of coaches in the development of mental toughness in athletes. He was also the recipient of a Young Investigators Research Grant from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology in 2013.

Andrew Manley is a Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology at Leeds Beckett University. He is also a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist with the Health and Care Professions Council, a Chartered Sport and Exercise Psychologist with the British Psychological Society, and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Andrew works with athletes and coaches from a range of backgrounds and sports to enhance psychological aspects of their performance and wellbeing. His primary research examines the impact of specific sources of information (e.g., reputation, clothing) on perception and behaviour within various interpersonal relationships (e.g., coach-athlete, student-teacher, client-practitioner).

Aidan Moran is Professor of Cognitive Psychology and Director of the Psychology Research Laboratory in University College Dublin, Ireland. A Fulbright Scholar, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology and co-author (with John Kremer) of Pure Sport: Practical Sport Psychology (2nd ed, Kremer & Moran, 2013). He is a former psychologist to the Irish Olympic Squad and has advised many of Ireland’s leading professional athletes and teams (e.g., the Irish rugby team). His research investigates mental/motor imagery, attention (eye-tracking) and the cognitive processes underlying expertise in skilled performance.

Robert Morris is a Lecturer in Sport Social Science at Liverpool John Moores University. He is a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (Health and Care Professions Council) and British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist. Robert has worked with a number of athletes and coaches in the United Kingdom in a range of different sports including golf, football, and rugby. His research interests include athlete career transition, particularly the youth-to-senior and retirement from sport transitions, and organizational psychology and its influence on sport performers.

Colm Murphy is a PhD research student at the Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance at Brunel University. He holds BSc in Sport Science and Health from Dublin City University and is a certified performance tennis coach. His current research is exploring the contextual aspect of anticipation in tennis, and the perceptual-cognitive processes underlying expertise in such a skill.

Marie H. Murphy is Professor of Exercise and Health and leads the Centre for Physical Activity and Health Research (CPAHR) at Ulster University. Sheis a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences and the Higher Education Academy. Marie’s research interests include the role of exercise, in particular walking, on health.

Nikos Ntoumanis is a Research Professor at the School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia. He is a Fellow of the UK’s Academy of Social Science and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society. He is interested in personal and contextual factors that optimize motivation and promote performance, psychological wellbeing and health-conducive behaviours in various physical activity settings (exercise, sport, physical education). He is the current Editor-in-Chief of Psychology of Sport and Exercise.

Susan O’Neill is a Lecturer in the School of Psychology at Queen’s University, Belfast, and a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society and Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Susan has applied experience in sport and exercise, with a specific focus on exercise. Her current research interests include understanding the meanings given to the exercise experience and the impact of social-cultural influences on physical activity participation and performance across a range of ‘minority’ groups.

Chin Wei Ong is currently a PhD candidate in the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Science in Bangor University. Previously, Chin Wei worked with elite youth athletes across various sports as the principal sport psychologist at the Singapore Sports School. His research interests include the dynamic relationship between personality (primarily narcissism) and performance (leadership), psychological aspects of talent development and anti-doping in sport.

Ross Pinder is a Skill Acquisition Specialist with the Australian Paralympic Committee, and has extensive experience across a wide range of sports at national and international level. He completed a PhD in motor learning and skill acquisition before going on to hold research, lecturing, and applied roles, where he has published work in several high-quality international journals and presented at national and international conferences and coaching courses. His research interests include ecological dynamics approaches to perception and action in sport, and he is primarily interested in maximizing skill learning in sport through the use of constraints-led and representative experimental and practice designs.

Ian Renshaw is a Senior Lecturer at Queensland University of Technology. Ian has worked as a skill acquisition specialist with a number of national bodies and sports organizations. Most notable was his work with the Centre of Excellence for Cricket Australia. His current research interests include nonlinear pedagogy, ecological dynamics, decision-making in sports, sports pedagogy, and emotions in learning.

Ross Roberts is a Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology and Co-director of the Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) at Bangor University. He is an HCPC registered sport and exercise psychologist, an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society (BPS), and is accredited by the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. His research interests focus on personality in relation to performance contexts and he has published in a wide range of leading personality, sport psychology, and neuroscience journals. He is also an editorial board member of The Sport Psychologist. In his spare time Ross likes to feed his addiction to running in the mountains of Snowdonia.

Christine Selby is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Husson University, United States, and she is a licensed psychologist who maintains a part-time private practice. She is a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist with the International Association of Eating Disorders Professionals and is a Certified Consultant with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology. Christine has published primarily in the area of eating disorders in athletes for largely non-academic audiences. She has also presented locally and nationally on eating disorders and related topics at professional conferences and to allied professionals who work directly with those dealing with eating disorders and related concerns.

Vaithehy Shanmugam is a Lecturer and Programme Director for the BSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology at University of Central Lancashire. She is a BPS chartered psychologist within the Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology and an active researcher and practitioner. Her main research interests revolve around athlete welfare. Specifically, she is interested in understanding the psychological, social, interpersonal, developmental, and environmental etiology and consequences of mental health among athletes. Areas of particular interest include eating disorders, depression, self-harm, and compulsive exercise. She has over eight years of experience working as a practitioner with a diverse range of athletes ranging in both competition level and sport type.

Dave Smith is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University. He is also a British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist and registered with the Health and Care Professions Council. Dave’s research interests include exercise dependence, muscle dysmorphia, drug use, and the psychology of strength sports generally, as well as the use of psychological skills (particularly imagery) and other interventions in sport and health contexts. Dave has also appeared on radio and television all over the world to discuss his work. He has worked with athletes at all levels in various sports, with a particular interest in bodybuilding and strength sports.

Rebecca Symes is Registered Practitioner Sport Psychologist with the Health and Care Professionals Council and a chartered member of the British Psychological Society. She runs her own consultancy, Sporting Success Ltd, working with a range of elite and professional athletes and teams. Her experience spans across a variety of sports including cricket, archery, mixed martial arts, football, and swimming. Rebecca also does a small amount of work in the corporate sector applying the principles of performance psychology.

Laurence Taggart is a Reader in the Institute of Nursing and Health Research at Ulster University. Laurence’s main research interests focus on the physical and mental health of people with learning disabilities, health promotion, the needs of family carers, the training needs of carers, and service developments

Richard Thelwell is Head of the Department for Sport and Exercise Sciences at the University of Portsmouth. He has extensive applied-practitioner experience and is a Registered Practitioner Psychologist with the Health and Care Professions Council, a Chartered Psychologist of the British Psychological Society, and, an Accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist with the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. His current research interests are within the area of coach psychology and in particular the themes of expectation effects, stress, emotion, coping and performance, and psychological skills and behaviour change.

David Tod is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Psychology at Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England. He is a British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist. David has worked with numerous athletes and coaches across multiple sports in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom, from weekend warriors to elite and professional performers. His research interests include athlete career transition, expertise in sport psychologists, and the relationship between identity and health behaviour.

Adam Tutton is Head of Education at the Bristol Rovers Community Trust. He leads all classroom and course-work activities for the BTEC Futsal Scholars and Foundation Degree in Community Football Coaching and Development. As a qualified head teacher for 12 years, Adam draws on vast experience to lead various courses and apply to real world settings. In his free time he travels to Cornwall with his family in search of the perfect wave.

Christopher Wagstaff is a Senior Lecturer and Course Director at the University of Portsmouth. His diverse consultancy work spans international, Olympic and Paralympic athletes, coaches and support staff, business executives, senior military officers, and emergency service personnel. He is a Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society, a registered Practitioner Psychologist and Partner at the Health and Care Professions Council, and is British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences accredited. Chris has published widely on organizational psychology in sport and is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Sciences.

Neil Weston is a Principal Lecturer in Sport Psychology at the University of Portsmouth. He is also a Registered Sport and Exercise Psychologist (Health and Care Professions Council) and British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist. Neil has worked with a number of athletes and coaches across a range of team and individual sports helping them to optimize their mindset and realize their potential. His research interests include examining the impact of psychological skills interventions upon performance and in particular investigating the psychology of human performance in extreme environments.

Mark Williams is a Professor and Head of Life Sciences at Brunel University. He is a Fellow of the European College of Sport Sciences, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Science, and the British Psychological Society. He is chartered by the British Psychological Society and is accredited by the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences to work in high-performance sport. He has published extensively in areas related to anticipation and decision-making, effective practice and instruction, and talent identification and development.

Tim Woodman is a Professor of Sport and Exercise Psychology and an accredited Psychologist with the British Psychological Society (BPS) and the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES). He is the current Director of Bangor University’s School of Sport, Health, and Exercise Sciences. He has published over 50 peer-reviewed articles in the flagship journals of personality, social psychology, and sport psychology. He is an Associate Editor for The Sport Psychologist and is on the editorial board of Psychology of Sport and Exercise. When he is not working, he is often found planning his next adventure in the great outdoors.

Acknowledgements

We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the significant contribution made to this text by all of the individual chapter authors. We thank you all for your many hours of hard work throughout the process. We would also like to acknowledge the willingness of the clients who consented to have their experiences told and discussed. Also, thank you to everyone at Wiley for their support and guidance through the process.

Stewart

To my co-editors Neil and Gavin, thank you for all your hard work in making this vision a reality. To the stars that shine brightest in my life, my wife Karen, daughter Isabelle, and son William. I think it is time we spent a summer at the beach!

Neil

I dedicate this book to my parents for their continuous support and encouragement to pursue this highly enjoyable sport psychology career and also to my wife Sarah and three children, Tom, Daisy, and Sophie for the love and fun they bring to my life.

Gavin

I dedicate this book to my parents and six elder brothers for their unending support and encouragement in my career, my wife Emmylou for all her love and guidance, and Aoife and Erin for all the happiness they bring to my life.

About the Companion Website

This book is accompanied by a companion website:

www.wiley.com/college/hewstone.

The website includes:

All figures/tables

Talking heads videos

Sample essay questions

Links to other/further resources

Part 1Sport and Performance Psychology

1Introduction

Stewart Cotterill, Neil Weston, and Gavin Breslin

Introduction to the book

The field of sport and exercise psychology has grown significantly over the last 20 years in line with a notable increase in the number of applied sport and exercise psychology practitioners globally. This growth has, in turn, driven the formalization and enhancement of sport and exercise psychologist training and qualification routes. While there is diversity in the approaches adopted in different countries and across different continents, the ultimate aim is the same, to enhance the quality of the service that we, as sport and exercise psychologists, offer to our clients and organizations.

While these developments are important for the field of sport and exercise psychology, less emphasis has been placed on sharing sport and exercise psychology practitioner experiences. In particular, it is evident that there has been a lack of discussion and dissemination of the different approaches to practice that sport and exercise psychologists have employed to meet the needs of their clients. As a consequence, in our experience trainee sport and exercise psychologists have historically not been exposed enough at a developmental level to the range of possible approaches that might be available to them. This is however changing and a number of education providers are now providing more comprehensive educational programmes for those students/practitioners interested in a career as a sport and/or exercise psychologist.

There has also recently been an encouraging increase in the volume of applied sport and exercise psychology books and peer-reviewed academic journal articles. However the detail as to the interventions employed by the practitioners and the evidence base to justify them, is still insufficient. Hence the present book seeks to overcome these limitations and provide a broad range of sport and exercise case studies covering a range of diverse approaches to practice, and crucially articulating the evidence base underpinning these approaches.

The book is designed to achieve a number of outcomes. First, it provides trainee and qualified practitioners alike with an opportunity to read a wide range of case studies detailing client initial assessment, intervention selection and implementation, as well as the consultant’s reflection and evaluation of their experiences. Second, the book seeks to provide readers with an evidence-based approach to the consultancy experience through initial assessment and intervention to evaluation. Third, the book aims to provide a broad range of practitioner approaches to assessing and addressing key performance issues evident in the modern day sport and exercise environments. Finally, authors in each chapter recommend further reading for exploration if the reader is keen to develop a greater understanding of a particular approach or technique.

This book is designed to be a contemporary text, with each chapter integrating both research and applied practice in developing a coherent understanding of current knowledge, future research directions and applied implications within the field. In particular, the text explores issues pertinent to the trainee/applied practitioner/supervisor within the field, and through the use of expert commentary explores potential solutions to many of these key issues.

The specific aims of this book are to:

Present a range of case studies examining how sport psychology practitioners initially assess the needs of their client(s), in addition to how they approach an intervention to improve the client’s situation.

Provide an evidence-based approach to solving client problems while also allowing practitioners the scope to discuss and reflect upon alternative creative strategies that could have informed their interventions.

Provide practitioners with a contemporary knowledge base in a range of sport and exercise discipline areas in addition to future research suggestions and applied implications.

Explore issues pertinent to the applied practitioner/supervisor within the field and through the use of expert commentary explore potential solutions to many of these key issues.

The nature of applied work in sport and exercise psychology

Applied practice within the domain of sport and exercise psychology is both diverse and eclectic in its nature. Indeed, the broad range of case studies presented in this book serves to reinforce this view. The domain for the applied practitioner ranges from working with individual athletes, coaches, and patients to teams, clubs, public health organizations, and broader settings. Coupled with this, practitioners can work with current or future Olympic champions, professional athletes, talented young performers, individuals and groups seeking to make healthier life choices, influence public-policy decisions, and to facilitate recovery and adaptation following serious health conditions such as strokes, cancer, and diabetes; and mental health issues such as depression and anxiety disorders. Indeed, the breadth of the field of sport and exercise psychology is truly astounding. Such a range of potential applications of psychology across the sport and exercise field raises questions about whether this can be covered in a single training/development programme. This is though beyond the focus of the current text. This book seeks to explore and highlight the diversity of applied practice facing current sport and exercise psychology practitioners, sharing a range of approaches and crucially their underpinning theoretical and empirical basis.

Overview of the book

The book is comprised of 25 chapters, arranged in four parts: Part I, Sport and Performance Psychology; Part II, Coaching Psychology; Part III, Motor Learning and Control; and Part IV, Psychology of Physical Activity and Exercise. Each chapter is designed to offer the reader an in-depth understanding of the particular case study and approach adopted. Also specific learning outcomes are articulated, and a number of key areas to consider when reading the chapter. Each chapter then presents an overview of the client and the issue before outlining the needs analysis process that guided the decisions regarding the interventions adopted. The framework underpinning the intervention and the associated processes are explained before the authors reflect upon the effectiveness of the approaches adopted. Finally, avenues for further exploration and reading are described to develop a greater understanding of the approaches and interventions presented in the chapter. It is important to state at this point that some of the chapters are real experiences that the clients have given their consent to be published, and some are hypothetical case studies. The chapters are supported by online resources including ‘Talking Heads’ videos from the authors, sample essays, questions, and further weblinks.

Sport and Performance Psychology

This part of the book explores a range of interventions where the presenting problems are sport and performance focused. In particular, Part I explores psychological factors including managing interpersonal relationships, confidence, concentration and rumination, stress management, personality and group functioning, injury rehabilitation, supporting athletes through career transitions; and the provision of psychological support during major events.

Coaching Psychology

This second part of the book focuses explicitly on the coach, and the potential psychological challenges coaches face. In particular, this part of the book focuses on case studies examining the coach’s stress and coping experience, impression management in coach/athlete interactions, creating successful coach/athlete relationships, and nurturing mental toughness through autonomous supportive coaching.

Motor Learning and Control

This part of the book explores motor learning and control and the use of these approaches in applied practice. Specifically, this part of the book explores the cognitive processes involved in the development of motor skills in practice, the development of visual anticipation skills, and the development of perception and action through an ecological-based approach.

Psychology of Physical Activity and Exercise

This final part of the book considers the use of physical activity and exercise as a medium through which a range of health and wellbeing outcomes can be achieved. Specifically, this part of the book explores the challenges of physical activity promotion on a population level, the relationship between exercise and wellbeing, the links between physical activity, self-esteem, and self-concept, intellectual disability and exercise, exercise and body image, exercise dependence, physical activity in children, physical activity and the environment around us, and exercise use in cancer care.

Taking all these chapters collectively, we hope you will enjoy the read and in so doing get a real feeling for the diverse nature of the applied field of sport and exercise psychology. It has been our pleasure working with the authors of each chapter to bring the reader an international, contemporary, informative and diverse textbook.

Stewart, Neil, and Gavin

2Managing Difficult Interpersonal Relationships: A Basic Psychological Needs Approach

Richard Hampson and Chris Harwood

Learning objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

Critically understand how a knowledge of Basic Psychological Needs Theory can be used as a motivational tool to help develop professional relationships and performance.

Differentiate how psychological need thwarting may present itself in applied situations from challenges associated with low levels of need satisfaction.

Critically appreciate the role of the psychologist in mediating conflict when interpersonal challenges arise in elite athlete dyads.

Consider the humanistic processes and solution-focused techniques of a consultant involved in an effective dyadic needs analysis and relationship intervention.

Areas to consider when reading the chapter:

The psychological and relational issues that can occur in partnerships at the highest level of elite sport.

The benefit of a full-time employed sport psychology practitioner who has the time and availability to offer continued support (as needed) through the athletes’ challenging phases.

The skill of helping to manage a partnership through facilitation using both athlete-centred and solution-focused principles.

The application of consultant support which progresses from proximal to distal (remote) using e-technology.

Client and background

The two clients involved in this case study are both elite-level canoe slalom athletes. Athlete A (from now on referred to as Joe) was aged 22 at the time of intervention. He had been participating in the sport for over ten years and had represented Great Britain at Under-18, Under-23 and senior level in the team canoe (C2) event. Athlete B (who will be called Robbie from here on) had also been involved in canoeing for over ten years and had represented Great Britain at the same levels in both individual canoe (C1) and C2 Olympic disciplines. As a partnership they had been together for almost four years and had also known each other prior to their formation as a team. At the time of the intervention the pair were preparing to compete for the upcoming summer of international racing that they had recently qualified for by achieving the necessary performance standards at domestic selection trials.