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Beschreibung

Finding new materials for copper/low-k interconnects is critical tothe continuing development of computer chips. While copper/low-kinterconnects have served well, allowing for the creation of UltraLarge Scale Integration (ULSI) devices which combine over a billiontransistors onto a single chip, the increased resistance andRC-delay at the smaller scale has become a significant factoraffecting chip performance. Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology is dedicatedto the materials and methods which might be suitable replacements.It covers a broad range of topics, from physical principles todesign, fabrication, characterization, and application of newmaterials for nano-interconnects, and discusses: * Interconnect functions, characterisations, electricalproperties and wiring requirements * Low-k materials: fundamentals, advances and mechanical properties * Conductive layers and barriers * Integration and reliability including mechanical reliability,electromigration and electrical breakdown * New approaches including 3D, optical, wireless interchip, andcarbon-based interconnects Intended for postgraduate students and researchers, in academiaand industry, this book provides a critical overview of theenabling technology at the heart of the future development ofcomputer chips.

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Contents

About the Editors

List of Contributors

Preface

Abbreviations

Section I Low-k Materials

1 Low-k Materials: Recent Advances

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Integration Challenges

1.3 Processing Approaches to Existing Integration Issues

1.4 Material Advances to Overcome Current Limitations

1.5 Conclusion

2 Ultra-Low-k by CVD: Deposition and Curing

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Porogen Approach by PECVD

2.3 UV Curing

2.4 Impact of Curing on Structure and Physical Properties: Benefits of UV Curing

2.5 Limit/Issues with the Porogen Approach

2.6 Future of CVD Low-k

2.7 Material Engineering: Adaptation to Integration Schemes

2.8 Conclusion

3 Plasma Processing of Low-k Dielectrics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Materials and Equipment

3.3 Process Results Characterization

3.4 Interaction of Low-k Dielectrics with Plasma

3.5 Mechanisms of Plasma Damage

3.6 Dielectric Recovery

3.7 Conclusions

4 Wet Clean Applications in Porous Low-k Patterning Processes

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Silica and Porous Hybrid Dielectric Materials

4.3 Impact of Plasma and Subsequent Wet Clean Processes on the Stability of Porous Low-k Dielectrics

4.4 Removal of Post-Etch Residues and Copper Surface Cleaning

4.5 Plasma Modification and Removal of Post-Etch 193 nm Photoresist

Section II Conductive Layers and Barriers

5 Copper Electroplating for On-Chip Metallization

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Copper Electroplating Techniques

5.3 Copper Electroplating Superfill

5.4 Alternative Cu Plating Methods

5.5 Electroplated Cu Properties

5.6 Conclusions

6 Diffusion Barriers

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Metal-Based Barriers as Liners for Cu Seed Deposition

6.3 Advanced Barrier Approaches

6.4 Conclusions

Section III Integration and Reliability

7 Process Integration of Interconnects

7.1 Introduction

7.2 On-Die Interconnects in the Submicrometer Era

7.3 On-Die Interconnects at Sub-100 nm Nodes

7.4 Integration of Low-k Dielectrics in Sub-65 nm Nodes

7.5 Patterning Integration at Sub-65 nm Nodes

7.6 Integration of Conductors in Sub-65 nm Nodes

7.7 Novel Air-Gap Interconnects

8 Chemical Mechanical Planarization for Cu–Low-k Integration

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Back to Basics

8.3 Mechanism of the CMP Process

8.4 CMP Consumables

8.5 CMP Interactions

8.6 Post-CMP Cleaning

8.7 Future Direction

9 Scaling and Microstructure Effects on Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Electromigration Fundamentals

9.3 Cu Microstructure

9.4 Lifetime Enhancement

9.5 Effect of Grain Size on EM Lifetime and Statistics

9.6 Massive-Scale Statistical Study of EM

9.7 Summary

10 Mechanical Reliability of Low-k Dielectrics

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Mechanical Properties of Porous Low-k Materials

10.3 Fracture Properties of Porous Low-k Materials

10.4 Conclusion

11 Electrical Breakdown in Advanced Interconnect Dielectrics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Reliability Testing

11.3 Lifetime Extrapolation and Models

11.4 Future Trends and Concerns

Section IV New Approaches

12 3D Interconnect Technology

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Dimensional Interconnected Circuits (3DICs) for System Applications

12.3 Advanced Microscopy Techniques for 3D Interconnect Characterization

12.4 Summary

13 Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnects

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Advantage of CNT Vias

13.3 Fabrication Processes of CNT Vias

13.4 Electrical Properties of CNT Vias

13.5 Current Reliability of CNT Vias

13.6 Conclusion

14 Optical Interconnects

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Optical Links

14.3 The Case for Silicon Photonics

14.4 Optical Networks on a Chip

14.5 Integration Strategies

14.6 Conclusion

15 Wireless Interchip Interconnects

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Wireless Interconnect Technologies

15.3 Conclusion

Plates

Index

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Advanced interconnects for ULSI technology / [edited by] Mikhail R. Baklanov, Paul S. Ho, Ehrenfried Zschech.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-470-66254-0 (hardback)1. Interconnects (Integrated circuit technology). 2. Integrated circuits–Ultra large scale integration.I. Baklanov, Mikhail. II. Ho, P. S. III. Zschech, Ehrenfried.TK7874.53.A39 2012621.39′5–dc23

2011038787

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Print ISBN: 9780470662540

About the Editors

MIKHAIL R. BAKLANOV

Dr Mikhail R. Baklanov is a Principal Scientist at IMEC. He graduated from the Faculty of Natural Sciences at Novosibirsk State University in 1971 and joined the Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk). He received his PhD degree (candidate of science) in Physical Chemistry in 1978 and the Doctor of Science degree in 1991. From 1991 to 1995 he headed a Laboratory at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics. He joined the Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre in Belgium (IMEC) in 1995 as a Visiting Professor. In 2000 and 2003 he worked as R&D Manager at XPEQT (Switzerland/Belgium). Since 2003 Mikhail Baklanov has been a Principal Scientist at IMEC. His current interest is related to low-k dielectric films for interconnects in advanced technology nodes and new materials for nanoelectronics. He is serving as a member of Organizing Committees of several international conferences. He has edited and contributed to several books and published more than 200 papers in peer reviewed journals, 24 patents and more than 40 invited presentations at International Conferences.PAUL S. HO

Dr Paul S. Ho is the Director of the Laboratory for Interconnect and Packaging at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his BS degree in Mechanical Engineering from National Chengkung University, MS degree in physics from the National Tsinghua University, both in Taiwan, and PhD degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He joined the Materials Science and Engineering Department at Cornell University in 1966 and became an Associate Professor in 1972. In 1972, he joined the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center and became Senior Manager of the Interface Science Department in 1985. In 1991, he joined the faculty at the University of Texas at Austin and was appointed the Cockrell Family Regents Chair in Materials Science and Engineering. His current research is in the areas of materials science and reliability for interconnect and packaging for microelectronics. He has edited several books and published extensively in the area of thin films and materials science for microelectronics. He has received several technical awards, including the Callinan Award from the Electrochemical Society in 2000 and the University Research Award from the Semiconductor Industry Association in 2007. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Vacuum Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.EHRENFRIED ZSCHECH

Dr Ehrenfried Zschech is working at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP). He was Senior Manager of the Center for Complex Analysis at GLOBALFOUNDRIES in Dresden. He joined Advanced Micro Devices in 1997. His responsibilities include the analytical support for process control and technology development, as well as physical failure analysis. He received his diploma degree in solid-state physics and his Dr rer. nat. degree from Dresden University of Technology. After having spent four years as a project leader in the field of metal physics and reliability of microelectronics interconnects at the Research Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Freiberg, he was appointed as a university teacher for ceramic materials at Freiberg University of Technology. In 1992, he joined the development department at Airbus in Bremen. There he managed the metal physics group and worked on laser joining metallurgy of light metals. His current research interests are in the areas of thin film materials compatibility, structure and materials analysis and physical failure analysis in integrated circuit applications. He has published three books and more than 100 papers in scientific journals in the areas of solid-state physics and materials science.

List of Contributors

Oliver AubelGLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden Module One LLC & Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, 01109 Dresden, GermanyMikhail R. Baklanov

IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumSridhar BalakrishnanIntel Corp., Hillsboro, OR 97124, USAGautam BanerjeeAir Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA 18195, USAWim BogaertsGhent University – IMEC, Department of Information Technology, Ghent, BelgiumRuth BrainIntel Corp., Hillsboro, OR 97124, USAJean-François de MarneffeIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumAlain DieboldCollege of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany, Albany, New York, USAValery M. DubinNANO3D SYSTEMS LLC, Portland, Oregon, USAGeraud DuboisHybrid Polymeric Materials Group, IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, K-17/E-1, San Jose, CA95120, USALaurent FavennecSTMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38921 Crolles, FranceOlivier GourhantSTMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38921 Crolles, FranceMeike HauschildtGLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden Module One LLC & Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, 01109 Dresden, GermanyMichael HeckerCenter for Complex Analysis, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden Module One LLC & Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, 01109 Dresden, GermanyPaul S. HoLab for Interconnect and Packaging, The University of Texas at Austin, UT-PRC 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg 160, Mail Code R8650, Austin, TX 78758, USAChao-Kun HuIBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USAHuai HuangLab for Interconnect and Packaging, The University of Texas at Austin, UT-PRC 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg 160, Mail Code R8650, Austin, TX 78758, USARené HübnerFraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing IZFP, Dresden Branch, Maria-Reiche-Strasse 2, 01109 Dresden, GermanyVincent JousseaumeCEA-LETI, MINatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, FranceAkio KawabataMIRAI-Selete, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197, JapanTakamaro KikkawaResearch Institute for Nanodevices and Bio Systems, Hiroshima University, 1-4-2 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527, JapanEls KestersIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumJohn U. KnickerbockerIBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USALay Wai KongCollege of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany, Albany, New York, USAQuoc Toan LeIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumHan LiIBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USASven NieseFraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing IZFP, Dresden Branch, Maria-Reiche-Strasse 2, 01109 Dresden, GermanyMizuhisa NiheiMIRAI-Selete, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197, JapanEnnis T. OgawaBroadcom Corporation, Irvine, CA 92617, USAMotonobu SatoMIRAI-Selete, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197, JapanShintaro SatoMIRAI-Selete, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197, JapanDenis ShamiryanGLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden Module One LLC & Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, 01109 Dresden, GermanyHualiang ShiINTEL Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, USAHerbert StruyfIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumKris VanstreelsIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumGuy VereeckeIMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, BelgiumJoost J. VlassakSchool of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAWilli VolksenAdvanced Organic Materials Group, IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, K-17/E-1, San Jose, CA95120, USAAziz ZenasniCEA-LETI, MINatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, FranceLijuan ZhangIBM System and Technology Group, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533, USALarry ZhaoIntel Corp., Hillsboro, OR 97124, USAEhrenfried ZschechFraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing IZFP, Dresden Branch, Maria-Reiche-Strasse 2, 01109 Dresden, Germany

Abbreviations

1MS

methylsilane

2MS

dimethylsilane

3MS

trimethylsilane

4MS

tetramethylsilane

AAS

atomic absorption spectrometry

AES

Auger electron spectroscopy

AFM

atomic force microscopy

ALD

atomic layer deposition

APD

avalanche photodetector

ARXPS

angle-resolved XPS

ATR-FTIR

attenuated total reflectance FTIR

ATRP

a-terpinene

AWG

arrayed waveguide grating

BCHD

bicyclohexadiene

BDV

distribution of breakdown voltage

BEOL

back-end-of-line

BMO

butadiene monoxide

BTASE

bis(trialkoxysilyl)ethane

BTASM

bis(trialkoxysilyl)methane

BTESEN

bis(trialkoxysilyl)ethene

BTMSM

bistrimethylsilyl methane

BTS

bias-temperature stress

C4

controlled-collapsed-chip connection

CBED

convergent beam electron diffraction

CCP

capacitively coupled plasma

CD

critical dimensions

CDO

carbon-doped oxide

CHO

cyclohexene oxide

CMOS

complementary metal oxide semiconductor

CMP

chemical–mechanical polishing

CP

carbosilane precursor

CPI

chip packaging interaction

CPO

cyclopentene oxide

CTE

coefficient of thermal expansion

CVD

chemical vapour deposition

DD

dual damascene

DEMS

diethoxymethylsilane

DFB

distributed feedback (laser)

DMCPS

decamethylcyclopentasiloxane

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

DSP

downstream plasma

E

Young’s modulus

EB

electron beam

EBSD

electron backscatter diffraction

ED

electron diffraction

EDXS

energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

EELS

electron energy loss spectroscopy

EFTEM

energy-filtered TEM

ELK

extreme low-k

ELP

electroless plating

EM

electromigration

EP

ellipsometric porosimetry

ERR

energy release rate

FACVD

filament-assisted chemical vapour deposition

FD

framework density

FEOL

front-end-of-line

FIB

focused ion beam

FM

frequency modulation

FOUP

front opening universal pod

FP

Fabry–Perot (cavity)

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy)

G

fracture resistance

GB

grain boundaries

GDOES

glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy

GISAXS

grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

H

hardness

HBPCSO

hyperbranched polycarbosiloxane

HMDS

hexamethyldisilazane

HPC

high-performance computing

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HSSL

high suppression strength levelers

I/O

input–output

ICP

inductively coupled plasma

iCVD

initiated CVD

ILD

interlayer dielectric

ITRS

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

KD

Kikuchi diffraction

LSV

linear sweep voltammograms

Me

methyl

MEA

monoethanolamine

MEL

zeolite with a two-dimensional 10-ring pore structure

MEMS

microelectromechanical systems

MFI

zeolite with a two-dimensional 10-ring pore structure and pore size 5.5 Å

MMR

material removal rate

MNL

molecular nanolayers (self-assembled)

MP

methyl-2-pyrrolidone

MPS

3-mercaptopropylsulfonate

MSSQ

methylsilsesquioxane

MTMS

methyltrimethoxysilane

MZI

Mach–Zehnder interferometer

NBD

norbornadiene

NBE

norbornene

NBECVD

neutral-beam-enhanced CVD

NBED

nanobeam electron diffraction

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

OF

PSZ organic functionalized PSZ

OnoC

optical network on a chip

OOK

on–off keying (modulation format)

OPC

optical proximity correction

OPL

organic planarization layer

ORP

oxidation–reduction potential

OSG

organo-silicate glass

PALS

positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

PC

propylene carbonate

PCBO

post-CMP bake-out

PCG

planar curved grating

PEALD

plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

PEBO

post-etch bake-out

PECVD

plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

PEG

polyethylene glycol

PID

plasma-induced damage

PPG

polypropylene glycol

PR

photoresist

PS

pitch splitting (of a metal layer)

PSZ

pure silica zeolites

PVD

physical vapor deposition

RIE

reactive ion etching

SAED

selected area electron diffraction

ScCO2

supercritical CO2

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

SIMS

secondary ion mass spectroscopy

SIV

stress-induced voiding

SOI

silicon on insulator

SP

spacer patterning

SPS

bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide

TDDB

time-dependent dielectric breakdown

TDESC

1,3,5-tris(diethoxysila)cyclohexane

TDS

thermal desorption spectroscopy

TE

transverse electric field (polarization)

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TEOS

tetraethyl-ortho-silicate

TGA

thermogravimetric analysis

TIA

transimpedance amplifier

TM

transverse magnetic field (polarization)

TMAH

tetramethylammonium hydroxide

TMCTS

tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane

TMOS

tetramethyl-ortho-silicate

TPAOH

tetrapropylammonium hydroxide

TSV

through-silicon via

TVMOS

trivinylmethoxysilane

TVS

triangular voltage sweep

ULK

ultra-low-k

UV

ultraviolet

UVSE

UV spectroscopic ellipsometry

V3D3

trimethyltrivinylcyclotrisiloxane

V4D4

tetravinyltetramethylcylclotetrasiloxane

VCSEL

vertical cavity surface emitting laser

VTMOS

vinyltrimethoxysilane

VTMS

vinyltrimethylsilane

VUV

vacuum ultraviolet

WDM

wavelength division multiplexing

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

XRR

X-ray reflectivity

ZLK

zeolite-inspired low-k

Section I

Low-k Materials