Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks - Ayman ElNashar - E-Book

Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks E-Book

Ayman ElNashar

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This book provides an insight into the key practical aspectsand best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, anddeployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTENetworks addresses the key practical aspects and bestpractice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. Inaddition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTEnetwork architecture and different deployment scenarios ofcommercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTEfocusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, andPhysical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers theconcepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling,and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocollayers. It describes the details of the optimization processincluding performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanismsin addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies basedon actual field results. The book provides detailed performanceanalysis of key features/enhancements such as C-DRX for Smartphonesbattery saving, CSFB solution to support voice calls with LTE, andMIMO techniques. The book presents analysis of LTE coverage and link budgetsalongside a detailed comparative analysis with HSPA+. Practicallink budget examples are provided for data and VoLTE scenarios.Furthermore, the reader is provided with a detailed explanation ofcapacity dimensioning of the LTE systems. The LTE capacity analysisin this book is presented in a comparative manner with reference tothe HSPA+ network to benchmark the LTE network capacity. The bookdescribes the voice options for LTE including VoIP protocol stack,IMS Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC). In addition, keyVoLTE features are presented: Semi-persistent scheduling (SPS), TTIbundling, Quality of Service (QoS), VoIP with C-DRX, Robust HeaderCompression (RoHC), and VoLTE Vocoders and De-Jitter buffer. Thebook describes several LTE and LTE-A advanced features in theevolution from Release 8 to 10 including SON, eICIC, CA, CoMP,HetNet, Enhanced MIMO, Relays, and LBS. This book can be used as a reference for best practices in LTEnetworks design and deployment, performance analysis, and evolutionstrategy. * Conveys the theoretical background of 4G-LTE networks * Presents key aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE networksdesign and deployment * Includes a realistic roadmap for evolution of deployed 3G/4Gnetworks * Addresses the practical aspects for designing and deployingcommercial LTE networks. * Analyzes LTE coverage and link budgets, including a detailedcomparative analysis with HSPA+. * References the best practices in LTE networks design anddeployment, performance analysis, and evolution strategy * Covers infrastructure-sharing scenarios for CAPEX and OPEXsaving. * Provides key practical aspects for supporting voice servicesover LTE, Written for all 4G engineers/designers working in networksdesign for operators, network deployment engineers, R&Dengineers, telecom consulting firms, measurement/performance toolsfirms, deployment subcontractors, senior undergraduate students andgraduate students interested in understanding the practical aspectsof 4G-LTE networks as part of their classes, research, orprojects.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Authors' Biographies

Preface

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Chapter 1: LTE Network Architecture and Protocols

1.1 Evolution of 3GPP Standards

1.2 Radio Interface Techniques in 3GPP Systems

1.3 Radio Access Mode Operations

1.4 Spectrum Allocation in UMTS and LTE

1.5 LTE Network Architecture

1.6 EPS Interfaces

1.7 EPS Protocols and Planes

1.8 EPS Procedures Overview

References

Chapter 2: LTE Air Interface and Procedures

2.1 LTE Protocol Stack

2.2 SDU and PDU

2.3 LTE Radio Resource Control (RRC)

2.4 LTE Packet Data Convergence Protocol Layer (PDCP)

2.5 LTE Radio Link Control (RLC)

2.6 LTE Medium Access Control (MAC)

2.7 LTE Physical Layer (PHY)

2.8 Channel Mapping of Protocol Layers

2.9 LTE Air Interface

2.10 Data Flow Illustration Across the Protocol Layers

2.11 LTE Air Interface Procedures

References

Chapter 3: Analysis and Optimization of LTE System Performance

3.1 Deployment Optimization Processes

3.2 LTE Performance Analysis Based on Field Measurements

3.3 LTE Case Studies and Troubleshooting

3.4 LTE Inter-RAT Cell Reselection

3.5 Inter-RAT Cell Reselection Optimization Considerations

3.6 LTE to LTE Inter-Frequency Cell Reselection

3.7 LTE Inter-RAT and Inter-frequency Handover

References

Chapter 4: Performance Analysis and Optimization of LTE Key Features: C-DRX, CSFB, and MIMO

4.1 LTE Connected Mode Discontinuous Reception (C-DRX)

4.2 Circuit Switch Fallback (CSFB) for LTE Voice Calls

4.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Techniques

References

Chapter 5: Deployment Strategy of LTE Network

5.1 Summary and Objective

5.2 LTE Network Topology

5.4 IPSec Gateway (IPSec GW)

5.5 EPC Deployment and Evolution Strategy

5.6 Access Network Domain

5.7 Spectrum Options and Guard Band

5.8 LTE Business Case and Financial Analysis

5.9 Case Study: Inter-Operator Deployment Scenario

References

Chapter 6: Coverage and Capacity Planning of 4G Networks

6.1 Summary and Objectives

6.2 LTE Network Planning and Rollout Phases

6.3 LTE System Foundation

6.4 PCI and TA Planning

6.5 PRACH Planning

6.6 Coverage Planning

6.7 LTE Throughput and Capacity Analysis

6.8 Case Study: LTE FDD versus LTE TDD

References

Chapter 7: Voice Evolution in 4G Networks

7.1 Voice over IP Basics

7.2 Voice Options for LTE

7.3 IMS Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)

7.4 Key VoLTE Features

7.5 Deployment Considerations for VoLTE

References

Chapter 8: 4G Advanced Features and Roadmap Evolutions from LTE to LTE-A

8.1 Performance Comparison between LTE's UE Category 3 and 4

8.2 Carrier Aggregation

8.3 Enhanced MIMO

8.4 Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) and Small Cells

8.5 Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)

8.6 Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission and Reception

8.7 Self-Organizing, Self-Optimizing Networks (SON)

8.8 LTE-A Relays and Home eNodeBs (HeNB)

8.9 UE Positioning and Location-Based Services in LTE

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: LTE Network Architecture and Protocols

List of Illustrations

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6

Figure 1.7

Figure 1.8

Figure 1.9

Figure 1.10

Figure 1.11

Figure 1.12

Figure 1.13

Figure 1.14

Figure 1.15

Figure 1.16

Figure 1.17

Figure 1.18

Figure 1.19

Figure 1.20

Figure 1.21

Figure 1.22

Figure 1.23

Figure 1.24

Figure 1.25

Figure 1.26

Figure 1.27

Figure 1.28

Figure 1.29

Figure 1.30

Figure 1.31

Figure 1.32

Figure 1.33

Figure 1.34

Figure 1.35

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8

Figure 2.9

Figure 2.10

Figure 2.11

Figure 2.12

Figure 2.13

Figure 2.14

Figure 2.15

Figure 2.16

Figure 2.17

Figure 2.18

Figure 2.19

Figure 2.20

Figure 2.21

Figure 2.22

Figure 2.23

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.5

Figure 3.6

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.8

Figure 3.9

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.11

Figure 3.12

Figure 3.13

Figure 3.14

Figure 3.15

Figure 3.16

Figure 3.17

Figure 3.18

Figure 3.19

Figure 3.20

Figure 3.21

Figure 3.22

Figure 3.23

Figure 3.24

Figure 3.25

Figure 3.26

Figure 3.27

Figure 3.28

Figure 3.29

Figure 3.30

Figure 3.31

Figure 3.32

Figure 3.33

Figure 3.34

Figure 3.35

Figure 3.36

Figure 3.37

Figure 3.38

Figure 3.39

Figure 3.40

Figure 3.41

Figure 3.42

Figure 3.43

Figure 3.44

Figure 3.45

Figure 3.46

Figure 3.47

Figure 3.48

Figure 3.49

Figure 3.50

Figure 3.51

Figure 3.52

Figure 3.53

Figure 3.54

Figure 3.55

Figure 3.56

Figure 3.57

Figure 3.58

Figure 3.59

Figure 3.60

Figure 3.61

Figure 3.62

Figure 3.63

Figure 3.64

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3

Figure 4.4

Figure 4.5

Figure 4.6

Figure 4.7

Figure 4.8

Figure 4.9

Figure 4.10

Figure 4.11

Figure 4.12

Figure 4.13

Figure 4.14

Figure 4.15

Figure 4.16

Figure 4.17

Figure 4.18

Figure 4.19

Figure 4.20

Figure 4.21

Figure 4.22

Figure 4.23

Figure 4.24

Figure 4.25

Figure 4.26

Figure 4.27

Figure 4.28

Figure 4.29

Figure 4.30

Figure 4.31

Figure 4.32

Figure 4.33

Figure 4.34

Figure 4.35

Figure 4.36

Figure 4.37

Figure 4.38

Figure 4.39

Figure 4.40

Figure 4.41

Figure 4.42

Figure 4.43

Figure 4.44

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Figure 4.46

Figure 4.47

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.5

Figure 5.6

Figure 5.7

Figure 5.8

Figure 5.9

Figure 5.10

Figure 5.11

Figure 5.12

Figure 5.13

Figure 5.14

Figure 5.15

Figure 5.16

Figure 5.17

Figure 5.18

Figure 5.19

Figure 5.20

Figure 5.21

Figure 5.22

Figure 5.23

Figure 5.24

Figure 5.25

Figure 5.26

Figure 5.27

Figure 5.28

Figure 5.29

Figure 5.30

Figure 5.31

Figure 5.32

Figure 5.33

Figure 5.34

Figure 5.35

Figure 5.36

Figure 5.37

Figure 5.38

Figure 5.39

Figure 5.40

Figure 5.41

Figure 5.42

Figure 5.43

Figure 5.44

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Figure 5.48

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Figure 5.53

Figure 5.54

Figure 5.55

Figure 5.56

Figure 5.57

Figure 5.58

Figure 5.59

Figure 5.60

Figure 5.61

Figure 5.63

Figure 6.1

Figure 6.2

Figure 6.3

Figure 6.4

Figure 6.5

Figure 6.6

Figure 6.7

Figure 6.8

Figure 6.9

Figure 6.10

Figure 6.11

Figure 6.12

Figure 6.13

Figure 6.14

Figure 6.15

Figure 6.16

Figure 6.17

Figure 6.18

Figure 6.19

Figure 6.22

Figure 6.23

Figure 6.24

Figure 6.25

Figure 6.26

Figure 6.27

Figure 6.28

Figure 6.29

Figure 6.30

Figure 6.31

Figure 6.32

Figure 6.33

Figure 6.34

Figure 6.35

Figure 6.36

Figure 6.37

Figure 6.38

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Figure 6.41

Figure 6.42

Figure 6.43

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Figure 6.48

Figure 6.49

Figure 6.50

Figure 6.53

Figure 6.54

Figure 6.55

Figure 6.56

Figure 6.57

Figure 6.58

Figure 6.59

Figure 6.60

Figure 6.61

Figure 6.62

Figure 6.63

Figure 6.64

Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2

Figure 7.3

Figure 7.4

Figure 7.5

Figure 7.6

Figure 7.7

Figure 7.8

Figure 7.9

Figure 7.10

Figure 7.11

Figure 7.12

Figure 7.13

Figure 7.14

Figure 7.15

Figure 7.16

Figure 7.17

Figure 7.18

Figure 7.19

Figure 7.20

Figure 7.21

Figure 7.22

Figure 7.23

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Figure 7.25

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Figure 7.28

Figure 7.29

Figure 7.30

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Figure 7.34

Figure 7.35

Figure 7.36

Figure 7.37

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Figure 7.41

Figure 7.42

Figure 7.43

Figure 7.44

Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2

Figure 8.3

Figure 8.4

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.6

Figure 8.7

Figure 8.8

Figure 8.9

Figure 8.10

Figure 8.11

Figure 8.12

Figure 8.13

Figure 8.14

Figure 8.15

Figure 8.16

Figure 8.17

Figure 8.18

Figure 8.19

Figure 8.20

Figure 8.21

Figure 8.22

Figure 8.23

Figure 8.24

Figure 8.25

Figure 8.26

Figure 8.27

List of Tables

Table 1.1

Table 1.2

Table 1.3

Table 1.4

Table 1.5

Table 1.6

Table 1.7

Table 1.8

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4

Table 2.5

Table 2.6

Table 2.7

Table 2.8

Table 2.9

Table 2.10

Table 2.11

Table 2.12

Table 2.13

Table 2.14

Table 2.15

Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Table 3.3

Table 3.4

Table 3.5

Table 3.6

Table 3.7

Table 3.8

Table 3.9

Table 3.10

Table 3.11

Table 3.12

Table 3.13

Table 3.14

Table 3.15

Table 3.16

Table 3.17

Table 3.18

Table 3.19

Table 3.20

Table 3.21

Table 3.22

Table 3.23

Table 3.24

Table 3.25

Table 3.26

Table 3.27

Table 3.28

Table 3.29

Table 3.30

Table 3.31

Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Table 4.3

Table 4.4

Table 4.5

Table 4.6

Table 4.7

Table 4.8

Table 4.9

Table 4.10

Table 4.11

Table 4.12

Table 4.13

Table 4.14

Table 4.15

Table 4.16

Table 4.17

Table 4.18

Table 4.19

Table 4.20

Table 4.21

Table 4.22

Table 4.23

Table 4.24

Table 4.25

Table 4.26

Table 4.27

Table 5.1

Table 5.2

Table 5.3

Table 5.4

Table 5.5

Table 5.6

Table 5.7

Table 5.8

Table 5.9

Table 5.10

Table 5.11

Table 5.12

Table 5.13

Table 5.14

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

Table 6.4

Table 6.5

Table 6.6

Table 6.7

Table 6.8

Table 6.9

Table 6.10

Table 6.11

Table 6.12

Table 6.13

Table 6.14

Table 6.15

Table 6.16

Table 6.17

Table 6.18

Table 6.19

Table 6.20

Table 6.21

Table 6.22

Table 6.23

Table 6.24

Table 6.25

Table 6.26

Table 6.27

Table 6.28

Table 6.29

Table 6.30

Table 6.31

Table 6.32

Table 6.33

Table 6.34

Table 6.35

Table 6.36

Table 6.37

Table 6.38

Table 6.39

Table 6.40

Table 6.41

Table 6.42

Table 6.43

Table 6.44

Table 6.45

Table 6.46

Table 6.47

Table 6.48

Table 6.49

Table 6.50

Table 6.51

Table 6.52

Table 6.53

Table 6.54

Table 7.1

Table 7.2

Table 7.3

Table 7.4

Table 7.5

Table 7.6

Table 7.7

Table 7.8

Table 7.9

Table 7.10

Table 7.11

Table 8.1

Table 8.2

Table 8.3

Table 8.4

Table 8.5

Table 8.6

Table 8.7

Table 8.8

DESIGN, DEPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF 4G-LTE NETWORKS

A PRACTICAL APPROACH

 

Ayman Elnashar

Emirates Integrated Telecomms Co., UAE

 

Mohamed A. El-saidny

QUALCOMM Technologies, Inc., USA

 

Mahmoud R. Sherif

Emirates Integrated Telecomms Co., UAE

 

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2014

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Elnashar, Ayman.

Design, deployment and performance of 4G-LTE networks : A Practical Approach / Dr Ayman Elnashar,

Mr Mohamed A. El-saidny, Dr Mahmoud Sherif.

pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-118-68321-7 (hardback)

1. Wireless communication systems. 2. Mobile communication systems. I. Title.

TK5103.2.E48 2014

621.3845′6–dc23

2013037384

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 978-1-118-68321-7

1 2014

 

 

 

To my beloved kids Noursin, Amira, and Yousef. You're the inspiration!

This book is dedicated to the memory of my father (God bless his soul) and also my mother, who's been a rock of stability throughout my life. This book is also dedicated to my beloved wife whose consistent support and patience sustain me still.

My sincerest appreciations for a lifetime career that has surpassed anything my imagination could have conceived.

Ayman Elnashar

To my Family for all their continuous support. To my elder brother for his guidance and motivation throughout the years. To my inspirational, intelligent, and beautiful daughter, Hana.

Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. – Steve Jobs

Mohamed A. El-saidny

This work would not have been possible without the consistent and full support of my beloved family. To my beloved wife, Meram, to my intelligent, motivating, and beautiful kids, Moustafa, Tasneem, and Omar. You are my inspiration.

To my Dad, my Mom (God bless her soul), my brother, and my entire family. Thank you for all your support and encouragement.

There is no elevator to success. You have to take the stairs. – Unknown Author

Those who think they have found this elevator will end up falling down the elevator shaft

Mahmoud R. Sherif

Authors' Biographies

Ayman Elnashar was born in Egypt in 1972. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, in 1995 and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical communications engineering from Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, in 1999 and 2005, respectively. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees while working fulltime. He has more than 17 years of experience in telecoms industry including GSM, GPRS/EDGE, UMTS/HSPA+/LTE, WiMax, WiFi, and transport/backhauling technologies. He was part of three major start-up telecom operators in MENA region (Mobinil/Egypt, Mobily/KSA, and du/UAE) and held key leadership positions. Currently, he is Sr. Director of Wireless Broadband, Terminals, and Performance with the Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Co. “du”, UAE. He is in charge of mobile and fixed wireless broadband networks. He is responsible for strategy and innovation, design and planning, performance and optimization, and rollout/implementation of mobile and wireless broadband networks. He is the founder of the Terminals department and also the terminals lab for end-to-end testing, validation, and benchmarking of mobile terminals. He managed and directed the evolution, evaluation, and introduction of du mobile broadband HSPA+/LTE networks. Prior to this, he was with Mobily, Saudi Arabia, from June 2005 to Jan 2008 and with Mobinil (orange), Egypt, from March 2000 to June 2005. He played key role in contributing to the success of the mobile broadband network of Mobily/KSA.

He managed several large-scale networks, and mega projects with more than 1.5 billion USD budgets including start-ups (LTE 1800 MHz, UMTS, HSPA+, and WiMAX16e), networks expansions (GSM, UMTS/HSPA+, WiFi, and transport/backhauling) and swap projects (GSM, UMTS, MW, and transport network) from major infrastructure vendors. He obtained his PhD degree in multiuser interference cancellation and smart antennas for cellular systems. He published 20+ papers in wireless communications arena in highly ranked journals such as IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation, IEEE Transactions Vehicular technology, and IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems I, IEEE Vehicular technology Magazine, IET Signal Processing, and international conferences. His research interests include practical performance analysis of cellular systems (CDMA-based & OFDM-based), 3G/4G mobile networks planning, design, and Optimization, digital signal processing for wireless communications, multiuser detection, smart antennas, MIMO, and robust adaptive detection and beamforming. He is currently working on LTE-Advanced and beyond including eICIC, HetNet, UL/DL CoMP, 3D Beamforming, Combined LTE/HSPA+, Combined LTE/WiFi: simultaneous reception, etc…

Mohamed A. El-saidny is a technical expert with 10+ years of international technical and leadership experience in wireless communication systems for mobile phones, modem chipsets, and networks operators. He received the B.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering and the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA in 2002 and 2004, respectively. From 2004 to 2008, he worked in Qualcomm CDMA Technology, Inc. (QCT), San Diego, California, USA. He was responsible for performance evaluation and analysis of the Qualcomm UMTS system and software solutions used in user equipment. As part of his assignments, he developed and implemented system studies to optimize the performance of various UMTS algorithms. The enhancements utilize Cell re-selection, Handover, Cell Search and Paging. He worked on several IOT and field trials to evaluate and improve the performance of 3G systems. Since 2008, he has been working in Qualcomm Corporate Engineering Services division in Dubai, UAE. He has been working on expanding the 3G/4G technologies footprints with operators, with an additional focus on user equipment and network performance as well as technical roadmaps related to the industry. Mohamed is currently supporting operators in Middle East and North Africa in addition to worldwide network operators and groups in LTE commercial efforts. His responsibilities are to ensure the device and network performance are within expectations. He led a key role in different first time features evaluations such as CSFB, C-DRX, IRAT, and load balance techniques in LTE. As part of this role, he is focused on aligning network operators to the device and chipset roadmaps and products in both 3G and 4G. Mohamed is the author of several international IEEE journal papers and contributions to 3GPP, and an inventor of numerous patents.

Mahmoud R. Sherif is a leading technical expert with more than 18 years of international experience in the design, development and implementation of fourth generation mobile broadband technologies and networks. He received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the City University of New York, USA in February 2000. His Ph.D. degree was preceded by the B.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering and the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Ain Shams in Cairo, Egypt in 1992, and 1996, respectively. From 1997 to 2008, he was working in the Wireless Business Unit at Lucent Technologies (which became Alcatel-Lucent in 2007), in Whippany, New Jersey, USA. He led the Voice and Data Quality and Performance Analysis team responsible for the end-to-end performance analysis of the different wireless/mobile technologies. In November 2008, he moved to Dubai in the United Arab Emirates to join the Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Co. “du” where he is now the Head of the Mobile Access Planning within du (Senior Director Mobile Access Planning) managing the Radio Planning, Site Acquisition and Capacity and Feature Management Departments. He is responsible for managing the planning of the mobile access network nationwide, Mobile Sites' Acquisition, Strategic Planning on Mobile Access Network Capacity Management, all Feature testing and rollout across 2G, 3G and LTE, defining and managing the financial resources efficiently and with alignment with company's financial targets (CAPEX & OPEX). He is also responsible for the mobile access network technology strategy in coordination with the commercial and marketing teams. He is considered a company expert resource in the various mobile broadband technologies, including HSPA+, LTE, VoLTE and LTE-A. He has published several related papers in various technical journals as well as multiple international conferences. He has multiple contributions to the 3GPP and other telecommunications standards. He also has multiple granted patents in the USA.

Preface

Cellular mobile networks have been evolving for many years. Several cellular systems and networks have been developed and deployed worldwide to provide the end user with quality and reliable communication over the air. Mobile technologies from the first to third generation have been quickly evolving to meet the need of services for voice, video, and data.

Today, the transition to smartphones has steered the user's interest toward a more mobile-based range of applications and services, increasing the demand for more network capacity and bandwidth. Meanwhile, this transition presents a significant revenue opportunity for network operators and service providers, as there is substantially higher average revenue per user (ARPU) from smartphone sales and relevant services. While the rollout of more advanced radio networks is proceeding rapidly, smartphone penetration is also increasing exponentially. Therefore, network operators need to ensure that the subscribers' experience stays the same as, or is even better than, with the older existing systems.

With the growing demand for data services, it is becoming increasingly challenging to meet the required data capacity and cell-edge spectrum efficiency. This adds more demand on the network operators, vendors and device providers to apply methods and features that stabilize the system's capacity and consequently improves the end-user experience. 4G systems and relevant advanced features have the capabilities to keep up with today's widespread use of mobile-communication devices, providing a range of mobile services and quality communications.

This book describes the long term evolution (LTE) technology for mobile systems; a transition from third to fourth generation. LTE has been developed in the 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), starting from the first version in Release 8 and through to the continuing evolution to Release 10, the latest version of LTE, also known as LTE-Advanced. The analysis in this book is based on the LTE of 3GPP Release 8 together with Release 9 and Release 10 roadmaps, with a focus on the LTE-FDD (frequency division duplex) mode . Unlike other books, the authors have bridged the gap between theory and practice, thanks to hands on experience in the design, deployment, and performance of commercial 4G-LTE networks and terminals.

The book is a practical guide for 4G networks designers, planners, and optimizers, as well as other readers with different levels of expertise. The book brings extensive and broad practical hands-on experience to the readers. Practical scenarios and case studies are provided, including performance aspects, link budgets, end-to-end architecture, end-to-end QoS (quality of service) topology, dimensioning exercises, field measurement results, applicable business case studies, and roadmaps.

Chapters 1 and 2 describe the LTE system architecture, interfaces, and protocols. They also introduce the LTE air interface and layers, in addition to downlink and uplink channels and procedures.

Chapters 3 to 8 constitute the main part of the book. They provide a deeper insight into the LTE system features, performance, design aspects, deployment scenarios, planning exercises, VoLTE (voice over long term evolution) implementation, and the evolution and roadmap to LTE-Advanced. Further material supporting this book can be found in www.ltehetnet.com.

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our deep gratitude to our colleagues in Qualcomm and du for assisting in reviewing and providing excellent feedback on this work. We are indebted to Huawei team in the UAE for their great support and review of Chapters 5 and 6, and also for providing the necessary supporting materials. Special thanks go to the wireless broadband and terminals team at du for their valuable support. We acknowledge the support of Harri Holma from NSN, for reviewing and providing valuable comments on Chapters 5 and 6. We wish to express our appreciation to every reviewer who reviewed the book proposal and provided very positive feedback and insightful comments. Thanks for their valuable comments and suggestions. Our thanks go to our families for their patience, understanding, and constant encouragement, which provided the necessary enthusiasm to accomplish this book. Also, our deep and sincere appreciations go to our professors who supervised and guided us through our academic career. Finally, we would like to thank the publishing team at John Wiley & Sons for their competence, extensive support and encouragement throughout the project to bring this work to completion.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

16-QAM

16-Quadrature amplitude modulation

64-QAM

64-Quadrature amplitude modulation

1G, 2G, 3G or 4G

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation

3GPP

Third generation partnership project

3GPP2

Third generation partnership project 2

AAA

Authentication, authorization and accounting

ACK

Acknowledgment

AES

Advanced encryption standard

AF

Application Function

AIPN

All-IP network

AMBR

Aggregate maximum bit rate

AMC

Adaptive modulation and coding

AMD

Acknowledged mode data

AN

Access network

APN

Access point name

ARP

Allocation and retention priority

ARQ

Automatic repeat request

AS

Access stratum

BC

Business Case

BCCH

Broadcast control channel

BCH

Broadcast channel

BI

Backoff indicator

BLER

Block error rate

BP

Bandwidth part

BSR

Buffer status report

BW

Bandwidth

CAPEX

Capital Expenditure

CCCH

Common control channel

CCE

Control channel elements

CDD

Cyclic delay diversity

CDM

Code Division Multiplexed

CDMA

Code division multiple access

CDS

Channel dependent scheduling

CFI

Control format indicator

CN

Core network

COGS

Cost of Goods Sold

CP

Control plane

Cyclic prefix

CQI

Channel quality indicator

CRC

Cyclic redundancy check

CRF

Charging Rules Function

C-RNTI

Cell radio network temporary identifier

CS

Circuit switched

CSG

Closed subscriber group

CSI

Channel signal information

CW

Code word

DAS

Distributed Antenna System

DCCH

Dedicated control channel

DCI

Downlink control information

DFT

Discrete Fourier transform

DFTS-OFDM

Discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

DL

Downlink

DL-SCH

Downlink shared channel

DM

Demodulation

DM-RS

Demodulation reference signal

DNS

Domain Name System

DRX

Discontinuous transmission

DS

Data services

DTCH

Dedicated traffic channel

E-AGCH

Enhanced absolute granting channel

EBITDA

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization

E-DCH

Enhanced dedicated channel

E-DPCCH

Enhanced dedicated physical control channel

E-DPDCH

Enhanced dedicated physical data channel

E-HICH

Enhanced hybrid indicator channel

EEA

EPS encryption algorithm

EIA

EPS integrity algorithm

EIR

Equipment Identity register

EMM

EPS mobility management

eNB

Evolved node B

EPC

Evolved packet core

EPLMN

Equivalent PLMN

EPRE

Energy per resource element

EPS

Evolved packet system

E-RGCH

Enhanced relative granting channel

ESM

EPS session management

ESP

Encapsulated security protocol

ETWS

Earthquake and tsunami warning system

E-UTRA

Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access; PHY aspects

E-UTRAN

Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network; MAC/L2/L3 aspects

FD

Full-duplex

FDD

Frequency division duplex

FDM

Frequency division multiplexing

FDMA

Frequency division multiple access

FFT

Fast Fourier transform

FH

Frequency hopping

FI

Framing information

FL

Forward link

FMS

First missing sequence

FS

Frame structure

FSTD

Frequency shift time diversity

GBR

Guaranteed bit rate

GERAN

GSM/EDGE radio access network

GGSN

GPRS gateway support node

GPRS

General packet radio service

GSM

Global system for mobiles (European standard)

GTP-U

GPRS tunneling protocol – user

GUMMEI

Globally unique MME identity

GUTI

Globally unique temporary identifier

GW

Gateway

HA

Home agent

HAP ID

HARQ process ID

HARQ

Hybrid ARQ

HD

Half-duplex

HFN

Hyper frame number

HI

Hybrid ARQ indicator

HLD

High Level Design

HLR

Home location register

HNBID

Home evolved node B identifier

HO

Handover

HPLMN

Home public land mobile network

HRPD

High rate packet data

HS

High speed

HSDPA

High speed downlink packet access

HS-DPCCH

High speed dedicated control channel

HSPA

High speed packet access

HSPA+

High speed packet access evolved or enhanced

HSS

Home subscriber service

HSUPA

High speed uplink packet access

IDFT

Inverse discrete Fourier transform

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IFFT

Inverse fast Fourier transform

IMS

IP Multimedia subsystem

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

IP

Internet protocol

IP-CAN

IP connectivity access network

ISI

Inter-symbol interference

ISR

Idle signaling load reduction

IRR

Internal Rate of Return

L1, L2, L3

Layer 1, 2, 3

LA

Location area

LAC

Location area code

LAI

Location area identifier

LAU

Location area updating

LCG

Logical channel group

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access

LFDM

Localized frequency division multiplexing

LI

Lawful Interception

LI

Length indicators

LTE

Long term evolution

LTI

Linear time invariant

MAC

Medium access control

MAC-I

Message authentication code for integrity

MBMS

Multimedia broadcast multicast service

MBR

Maximum bit rate

MBSFN

Multimedia broadcast over a single frequency network

MCCH

Multicast control channel

MCH

Multicast channel

MCS

Modulation and coding schemes

MCW

Multiple code word

ME

Mobile equipment

MIB

Master information block

MIMO

Multiple-input–multiple-output

MME

Mobility management entity

MMEC

MME code

MMEGI

MME group ID

MSISDN

Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network-Number

MOS

Mean Opinion Score

MTCH

Multicast traffic channel

MU-MIMO

Multi-user multiple-input–multiple-output

NAK

Negative acknowledgment

NAS

Non-access stratum

NDI

New data indicator

NID

Network ID

NPV

Net Present Value

OCS

Online Charging System

OFCS

Offline Charging System

OFDM

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

OFDMA

Orthogonal frequency division multiple access

OS

Operating system

PAPR

Peak-to-average power ratio

PAR

Peak to average ratio

PBCH

Physical broadcast channel

PCC

Policy charging and control

PCCH

Paging control channel

PCFICH

Physical control format indicator channel

PCH

Paging channel

PCRF

Policy and charging rules function

PDCCH

Physical downlink control channel

PDCP

Packet data convergence protocol

PDG

Packet data gateway

PDN

Packet data network

PDSCH

Physical downlink shared channel

PDSN

Packet data serving node

PDU

Protocol data unit

PELR

Packet error loss rate

P-GW

Packet data network gateway

PHICH

Physical hybrid automatic repeat request indicator channel

PHR

Power headroom report

PHY

Physical layer

PIM

Passive Intermodulation

PLMN

Public land mobile network

PMCH

Physical multicast channel

PMI

Precoding matrix indicator

PMIP

Proxy mobile IP

PoC

Push-to-talk over cellular

PRACH

Physical random access channel

PRB

Physical resource block

PS

Packet switched

PSC

Primary synchronization code

P-SCH

Primary synchronization channel

PSS

Primary synchronization signal

PSTN

Packet switched telephone network

PSVT

Packet switched video telephony

PTT

Push-to-talk

PUCCH

Physical uplink control channel

PUSCH

Physical uplink shared channel

QAM

Quadrature amplitude modulation

QCI

QoS class identifier

QoS

Quality of service

QPSK

Quadrature phase shift keying

RA

Routing area

RAC

Routing area code

RACH

Random access channel

RAN

Radio access network

RAPID

Random access preamble identifier

RAR

Random access response

RAU

Routing area updating

RB

Resource block

RBG

Resource block group

RDS

RMS delay spread

RE

Resource element

REG

Resource element group

RI

Rank indicator

RIV

Resource indication value

RL

Reverse link

RLC

Radio link control

RLF

Radio link failure

RMS

Root-mean-square

RN

Relay Node

RNC

Radio network controller

RNL

Radio network layer

RNTI

Radio network temporary identifier

ROHC

Robust header compression

ROI

Return On Investment

RPLMN

Registered PLMN

RRC

Radio resource control

RRM

Radio resource management

RS

Reference signal

RV

Redundancy version

SAE

System architecture evolution

SAW

Stop-and-wait

SC-FDM

Single-carrier frequency division multiplexing

SC-FDMA

Single-carrier frequency division multiple access

SCH

Supplemental channel (CDMA2000)

Synchronization channel (WCDMA)

SCTP

Stream control transmission protocol

SCW

Single code word

SDF

Service data low

SDM

Spatial division multiplexing

SDMA

Spatial division multiple access

SDU

Service data unit

SFBC

Space frequency block code

SFN

System frame number

SGSN

Serving GPRS support node

S-GW

Serving gateway

SI

System information message

SIB

System information block

SINR

Signal to interference noise ratio

SM

Session management

Spatial multiplexing

SNR

Signal to noise ratio

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

SPOF

Single Point of Failure

SPS

Semi-persistent scheduling

SR

Scheduling request

SRS

Sounding reference signals

SSC

Secondary synchronization code

S-SCH

Secondary synchronization channel

SSS

Secondary synchronization signal

SU-MIMO

Single-user multiple-input–multiple-output

TA

Tracking area

Timing advance/alignment

TAC

Tracking area code

TAI (_List)

Tracking area identifier (_List)

TAU

Tracking area update

TDD

Time division duplex

TDM

Time division multiplexing

TDMA

Time division multiple access

TFT

Traffic flow template

TPC

Transmit power control

TTI

Transmission time interval

Tx

Transmit

UCI

Uplink control information

UE

User equipment

UL

Uplink

UL-SCH

Uplink shared channel

UMTS

Universal mobile telecommunications system

UP

User plane

UTRA

UMTS terrestrial radio access

UTRAN

UMTS terrestrial radio access network

VAF

Voice Activity Factor

VoIP

Voice over Internet protocol

VoLTE

Voice over LTE

VRB

Virtual resource block

VT

Video telephony

WACC

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

WCDMA

Wideband code division multiple access

WiMAX

Worldwide interoperability for microwave access

X2

The interface between eNodeBs

ZC

Zadoff–Chu

Chapter 1LTE Network Architecture and Protocols

Ayman Elnashar and Mohamed A. El-saidny

Cellular mobile networks have been evolving for many years. The initial networks are referred to as First Generation, or 1G systems. The 1G mobile system was designed to utilize analog. It included the AMPS (advanced mobile phone system). The Second Generation, 2G mobile systems, were introduced utilizing digital multiple access technology; TDMA (time division multiple access) and CDMA (code division multiple access). The main 2G networks were GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA, also known as cdmaOne or IS-95 (Interim Standard 95). The GSM system still has worldwide support and is available for deployment on several frequency bands, such as 900, 1800, 850, and 1900 MHz. CDMA systems in 2G networks use a spread spectrum technique and utilize a mixture of codes and timing to identify cells and channels. In addition to being digital, as well as improving capacity and security, the 2G systems also offer enhanced services, such as SMS (short message service) and circuit switched (CS) data. Different variations of the 2G technology evolved later to extend the support of efficient packet data services, and to increase the data rates. GPRS (general packet radio system) and EDGE (enhanced data rates for global evolution) systems have been the evolution path of GSM. The theoretical data rate of 473.6 kbps enabled the operators to offer multimedia services efficiently. Since it does not comply with all the features of a 3G system, EDGE is usually categorized as 2.75G.

3G (Third Generation) systems are defined by IMT2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications). IMT2000 defines that a 3G system should provide higher transmission rates in the range of 2 Mbps for stationary use and 348 kbps in mobile conditions. The main 3G technologies are:

WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access)

—This was developed by the 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project). WCDMA is the air interface of the 3G UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system). The UMTS system has been deployed based on the existing GSM communication core network (CN) but with a totally new radio access technology (RAT) in the form of WCDMA. Its radio access is based on FDD (frequency division duplex). Current deployments are mainly at 2.1 GHz bands. Deployments at lower frequencies are also possible, such as UMTS900. UMTS supports voice and multimedia services.

TD-CDMA (time division multiple access)

—This is typically referred to as UMTS TDD (time division duplex) and is part of the UMTS specifications. The system utilizes a combination of CDMA and TDMA to enable efficient allocation of resources.

TD-SCDMA (time division synchronous code division multiple access)

—This has links to the UMTS specifications and is often identified as UMTS-TDD low chip rate. Like TD-CDMA, it is also best suited to low mobility scenarios in microcells or picocells.

CDMA2000

—This is a multi-carrier technology standard which uses CDMA. It is part of the 3GPP2 standardization body. CDMA2000 is a set of standards including CDMA2000 EV-DO (evolution-data optimized) which has various revisions. It is backward compatible with cdmaOne.

WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access)

—This is another wireless technology which satisfies IMT2000 3G requirements. The air interface is part of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.16 standard which originally defined PTP (point-to-point) and PTM (point-to-multipoint) systems. This was later enhanced to provide greater mobility. WiMAX Forum is the organization formed to promote interoperability between vendors.

4G (Fourth Generation) cellular wireless systems have been introduced as the latest version of mobile technologies. 4G is defined to meet the requirements set by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of IMT Advanced.

The main drivers for the network architecture evolution in 4G systems are: all-IP (Internet protocol) -based, reduced network cost, reduced data latencies and signaling load, interworking mobility among other access networks in 3GPP and non-3GPP, always-on user experience with flexible quality of service (QoS) support, and worldwide roaming capability. 4G systems include different access technologies:

LTE and LTE-Advanced (long term evolution)

—This is part of 3GPP. LTE as it stands now does not meet all IMT Advanced features. However, LTE-Advanced is part of a later 3GPP release and has been designed specifically to meet 4G requirements.

WiMAX 802.16m

—The IEEE and the WiMAX Forum have identified 802.16m as their offering for a 4G system.

UMB (ultra mobile broadband)

—This is identified as EV-DO Rev C. It is part of 3GPP2. Most vendors and network operators have decided to promote LTE instead.

1.1 Evolution of 3GPP Standards

The specifications of GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, and LTE have been developed in stages, known as 3GPP releases. Operators, network, and device vendors use these releases as part of their development roadmap. All 3GPP releases are backward compatible. This means that a device supporting one of the earlier releases of 3GPP technologies can still work on a newer release deployed in the network.

The availability of devices on a more advanced 3GPP release makes a great contribution to the choice of evolution by the operator. Collaboration between network operators, network vendors, and chipset providers is an important step in defining the roadmap and evolution of 3GPP features and releases. This has been the case in many markets.

1.1.1 3GPP Release 99

3GPP Release 99 has introduced UMTS, as well as the EDGE enhancement to GPRS. UMTS contains all features needed to meet the IMT-2000 requirements as defined by the ITU. It is able to support CS voice and video services, as well as PS (packet switched) data services over common and dedicated channels. The theoretical data rate of UMTS in this release is 2 Mbps. The practical uplink and downlink data rates for UMTS in deployed networks have been 64, 128, and 384 kbps.

1.1.2 3GPP Release 4

Release 4 includes enhancements to the CN. The concept of all-IP networks has been introduced in this release. There has not been any significant change added to the user equipment (UE) or air interface in this release.

1.1.3 3GPP Release 5

Release 5 is the first major addition to the UMTS air interface. It adds HSDPA (high speed downlink packet access) to improve capacity and spectral efficiency. The goal of HSDPA in the 3GPP roadmap was to improve the end-user experience and to keep up with the evolution taking place in non-3GPP technologies. During the time when HSDPA was being developed, the increasing interest in mobile-based services demanded a significant improvement in the air interface of the UMTS system.

HSDPA improves the downlink speeds from 384 kbps to a maximum theoretical 14.4 Mbps. The typical rates in the Release 5 networks and devices are 3.6 and 7.2 Mbps. The uplink in Release 5 has preserved the capabilities of Release 99.

HSDPA provides the following main features which hold as the fundamentals of all subsequent 3GPP evolutions:

Adaptive modulation

—In addition to the original UMTS modulation scheme, QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying), Release 5 also includes support for 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation).

Flexible coding

—Based on fast feedback from the mobile in the form of a CQI (channel quality indicator), the UMTS base station (known as NodeB) is able to modify the effective coding rate and thus increase system efficiency. In Release 99, such adaptive data rate scheduling took place at the RNC (radio network controller) which impacted the cell capacity and edge of cell data rates.

Fast scheduling

—HSDPA includes a shorter TTI (time transmission interval) of 2 ms, which enables the NodeB scheduler to quickly and efficiently allocate resources to mobiles. In Release 99 the minimum TTI was 10 ms, adding more latency to the packets being transmitted over the air.

HARQ (hybrid automatic repeat request)

—If a packet does not get through to the UE successfully, the system employs HARQ. This improves the retransmission timing, thus requiring less reliance on the RNC. In Release 99, the packet re-transmission was mainly controlled by the physical (PHY) layer as well as the RNC's ARQ (automatic repeat request) algorithm, which was slower in adapting to the radio conditions.

1.1.4 3GPP Release 6

Release 6 adds various features, with HSUPA (high speed uplink packet data) being the key one. HSUPA also goes under the term “enhanced uplink, EUL”. The term HSPA (high speed packet access) is normally used to describe a Release 6 network since an HSUPA call requires HSDPA on the downlink.

The downlink of Release 6 remained the same as in HSDPA of Release 5. The uplink data rate of the HSUPA system can go up to 5.76 Mbps with 2 ms TTI used in the network and devices. The practical uplink data rates deployed are 1.4 and 2 Mbps. It is worth noting that there is a dependence between the downlink and uplink data rates. Even if the user is only downloading data at a high speed, the uplink needs to cope with the packet acknowledgments at the same high speed. Therefore any data rate evolution in the downlink needs to have an evolved uplink as well.

HSUPA, like HSDPA, adds functionalities to improve packet data which include:

Flexible coding

—HSUPA has the ability to dynamically change the coding and therefore improves the efficiency of the system.

Fast power scheduling

—A key fact of HSUPA is that it provides a method to schedule the power to different mobiles. This scheduling can use either a 2 or 10 ms TTI. 2 ms usually reveals a challenge on the uplink interference and coverage when compared to 10 ms TTI operation. Hence, a switch between the two TTI is possible within the same EUL data call.

HARQ

—Like HSDPA, HSUPA also utilizes HARQ concepts in lower layers. The main difference is the timing relationship for the retransmission and the synchronized HARQ processes.

1.1.5 3GPP Release 7

The main addition to this release is HSPA+, also known as evolved HSPA. During the commercialization of HSPA, LTE system development has been started, promising a more enhanced bandwidth and system capacity. Evolution of the HSPA system was important to keep up with any competitor technologies and prolong the lifetime of UMTS systems.

HSPA+ provides various enhancements to improve PS data delivery. The features in HSPA+ have been introduced as add-ons. The operators typically evaluate the best options of HSPA+ features for deployment interests, based on the traffic increase requirements, flexibility, and the cost associated for the return of investment. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes:

64 QAM

—This is added to the downlink and enables HSPA+ to operate at a theoretical rate of 21.6 Mbps.

16 QAM

—This is added to the uplink and enables the uplink to theoretically achieve 11.76 Mbps.

MIMO (multiple input multiple output) operation

—This offers various capacity benefits including the ability to reach a theoretical 28.8 Mbps data rate in the downlink.

Power and battery enhancements

—Various enhancements such as CPC (continuous packet connectivity) have been included. CPC enables DTX (discontinuous transmission) and DRX (discontinuous reception) functions in connected mode.

Less data packet overhead

—The downlink includes an enhancement to the lower layers in the protocol stack. This effectively means that fewer headers are required, and in turn, improves the system efficiency.

1.1.6 3GPP Release 8

On the HSPA+ side, Release 8 has continued to improve the system efficiency and data rates by providing:

MIMO with 64 QAM modulation

—It enables the combination of 64 QAM and MIMO, thus reaching a theoretical rate of 42 Mbps, that is, 2 × 21.6 Mbps.

Dual cell operation

—DC-HSDPA (dual cell high speed downlink packet access) is a feature which is further enhanced in Releases 9 and 10. It enables a mobile to effectively utilize two 5 MHz UMTS carriers. Assuming both are using 64 QAM (21.6 Mbps), the theoretical data rate is 42 Mbps. DC-HSDPA has gained the primary interest over other Release 8 features, and most networks are currently either supporting it or in the deployment stage.

Further power and battery enhancements

—deploys a feature known as enhanced fast dormancy as well as enhanced RRC state transitions.

The 3GPP Release 8 defines the first standardization of the LTE specifications. The evolved packet system (EPS) is defined, mandating the key features and components of both the radio access network (E-UTRAN, evolved universal terrestrial radio access network) and the CN (evolved packet core, EPC). Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is defined as the air interface with the ability to support multi-layer data streams using MIMO antenna systems to increase spectral efficiency.

LTE is defined as an all-IP network topology differentiated over the legacy CS domain. However, the Release 8 specification makes use of the CS domain to maintain compatibility with the 2G and 3G systems utilizing the voice calls circuit switch Fallback (CSFB) technique for any of those systems.

LTE in Release 8 has a theoretical data rate of 300 Mbps. The most common deployment is 100 to 150 Mbps with a full usage of the bandwidth, 20 MHz. Several other variants are also deployed in less bandwidth and hence with lower data rates. The bandwidth allocation is tied to the amount of spectrum acquired by the LTE network operators in every country.

The motivations and different options discussed in 3GPP for the EPS network architecture have been detailed in several standardized technical reports in [1–4].

1.1.7 3GPP Release 9 and Beyond

Even though LTE is a Release 8 system, it is further enhanced in Release 9. There are a number of features in Release 9. One of the most important is the support of additional frequency bands and additional enhancements to CSFB voice calls from LTE.

On the HSPA+ side, Release 9 and beyond continued to build on the top of previous HSPA+ enhancements by introducing DC-HSUPA, MIMO + DC-HSDPA, and multi-carrier high speed downlink packet access (MC-HSDPA). The downlink of HSPA+ in this release is expected to reach 84 Mbps, while the uplink can reach up to 42 Mbps.

Release 10 includes the standardization of LTE Advanced, the 3GPP's 4G offering. It includes modification to the LTE system to facilitate 4G services. The requirements of ITU are to develop a system with increased data rates up to 1 Gbps in the downlink and 500 Mbps in the uplink. Other requirements of ITU's 4G are worldwide roaming and compatibility of services. LTE-Advanced is now seeing more interest, especially from the operators who have already deployed LTE in early stages.

As discussed in this 3GPP evolution, the 4G system is designed to refer to LTE-Advanced. However, since UMTS has been widely used as a 3G system, investing in and building up an ecosystem for an LTE network using the same “3G” term would have been misinterpreted. Hence, regulators in most countries have allowed the mobile operators to use the term “4G” when referring to LTE. This book considers the term 4G when referring to an LTE system, especially for the concepts that are still common between LTE and LTE-Advanced.

This chapter describes the overall architecture of an LTE CN, radio access protocols, and air interface procedures. This chapter and the upcoming parts of the book focus on Release 8 and 9 of the 3GPP specifications. The last chapter of the book gives an overview of the features beyond Release 9.

1.2 Radio Interface Techniques in 3GPP Systems

In wireless cellular systems, mobile users share a common medium for transmission. There are various categories of assignment. The main four are FDMA (frequency division multiple access), TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access). Each of the technologies discussed earlier in the chapter utilizes one of these techniques. This is another reason for distinguishing the technologies.

1.2.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

In order to accommodate various devices on the same wireless network, FDMA divides the available spectrum into sub-bands or channels. Using this technique, a dedicated channel can be allocated to a user, while other users occupy other channels or frequencies.

FDMA channels can suffer from higher interference. They cannot be close together due to the energy from one transmission affecting the adjacent or neighboring channels. To combat this, additional guard bands between channels are required, which also reduces the system's spectral efficiency. The uplink or downlink receiver must use filtering to mitigate interference from other users.

1.2.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

In TDMA systems the channel bandwidth is shared in the time domain. It assigns a relatively narrow spectrum allocation to each user, but in this case the bandwidth is shared between a set of users. Channelization of users in the same band is achieved by a separation in both frequency and time. The number of timeslots in a TDMA frame is dependent on the system. For example, GSM utilizes eight timeslots.

TDMA systems are digital and therefore offer security features such as ciphering and integrity. In addition, they can employ enhanced error detection and correction schemes including FEC (forward error correction). This enables the system to be more resilient to noise and interference and therefore they have a greater spectral efficiency than FDMA systems.

1.2.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)