Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies - K. Daniel Wong - E-Book

Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies E-Book

K. Daniel Wong

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A broad introduction to the fundamentals of wirelesscommunication engineering technologies Covering both theory and practical topics, Fundamentals ofWireless Communication Engineering Technologies offers a soundsurvey of the major industry-relevant aspects of wirelesscommunication engineering technologies. Divided into four mainsections, the book examines RF, antennas, and propagation; wirelessaccess technologies; network and service architectures; and othertopics, such as network management and security, policies andregulations, and facilities infrastructure. Helpfulcross-references are placed throughout the text, offeringadditional information where needed. The book provides: * Coverage that is closely aligned to the IEEE's WirelessCommunication Engineering Technologies (WCET) certification programsyllabus, reflecting * the author's direct involvement in the development of theprogram * A special emphasis on wireless cellular and wireless LANsystems * An excellent foundation for expanding existing knowledge in thewireless field by covering industry-relevant aspects of wirelesscommunication * Information on how common theories are applied in real-worldwireless systems With a holistic and well-organized overview of wirelesscommunications, Fundamentals of Wireless CommunicationEngineering Technologies is an invaluable resource for anyoneinterested in taking the WCET exam, as well as practicingengineers, professors, and students seeking to increase theirknowledge of wireless communication engineering technologies.

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Contents

Cover

Wiley Series on Information and Communication Technology

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

Part I: Preliminaries

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Notation

1.2 Foundations

1.3 Signals and Systems

1.4 Signaling in Communications Systems

References

Part II: Radio Frequency, Antennas, and Propagation

Chapter 2: Introduction to Radio Frequency, Antennas, and Propagation

2.1 Mathematical Preliminaries

2.2 Electrostatics, Current, and Magnetostatics

2.3 Time-Varying Situations, Electromagnetic Waves, and Transmission Lines

2.4 Impedance

2.5 Tests and Measurements

References

Chapter 3: Radio-Frequency Engineering

3.1 Introduction and Preliminaries

3.2 Noise

3.3 System Issues Related to NonLinearity

3.4 Mixing and Related Issues

3.5 Oscillators and Related Issues

3.6 Amplifiers and Related Issues

3.7 Other components

References

Chapter 4: Antennas

4.1 Characterization

4.2 Examples

4.3 Antenna Arrays

4.4 Practical Issues: Connecting to Antennas, Tuning, and so on

References

Chapter 5: Propagation

5.1 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation: Common Effects

5.2 Large-Scale Effects in Cellular Environments

5.3 Small-Scale Effects in Cellular Environments

5.4 Incorporating Fading Effects in the Link Budget

Appendix: Ricean Fading Derivation

References

Part III: Wireless Access Technologies

Chapter 6: Introduction to Wireless Access Technologies

6.1 Review of Digital Signal Processing

6.2 Digital Communications for Wireless Access Systems

6.3 The Cellular Concept

6.4 Spread Spectrum

6.5 OFDM

References

Chapter 7: Component Technologies

7.1 Medium Access Control

7.2 Handoff

7.3 Power Control

7.4 Error Correction Codes

References

Chapter 8: Examples of Air-Interface Standards: GSM, IS-95, WiFi

8.1 GSM

8.2 IS-95 CDMA

8.3 IEEE 802.11 WiFi

References

Chapter 9: Recent Trends and Developments

9.1 Third-Generation CDMA-based Systems

9.2 Emerging Technologies for Wireless Access

9.3 HSPA and HRPD

9.4 IEEE 802.16 WiMAX

9.5 LTE

9.6 What's next?

References

Part IV: Network and Service Architectures

Chapter 10: Introduction to Network and Service Architectures

10.1 Review of fundamental networking concepts

10.2 Architectures

10.3 IP networking

10.4 Teletraffic Analysis

References

Chapter 11: GSM and IP: Ingredients of Convergence

11.1 GSM

11.2 VoIP

11.3 QoS

References

Chapter 12: Toward an All-IP Core Network

12.1 Making IP work with wireless

12.2 GPRS

12.3 Evolution from GSM to UMTS up to the introduction of IMS

12.4 IP Multimedia Subsystem

12.5 Other Networks

References

Chapter 13: Service Architectures, Alternative Architectures, and Looking Ahead

13.1 Services

13.2 Service Architectures

13.3 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

13.4 Mesh, Sensor, and Vehicular Networks

References

Part V: Miscellaneous Topics

Chapter 14: Network Management

14.1 Requirements and Concepts

14.2 Network Management Models

14.3 SNMP

References

Chapter 15: Security

15.1 Basic Concepts

15.2 Cryptography

15.3 Network security protocols

15.4 Wireless Security

References

Chapter 16: Facilities Infrastructure

16.1 Communications Towers

16.2 Power Supplies and Protection

16.3 Additional Topics

References

Chapter 17: Agreements, Standards, Policies, and Regulations

17.1 Agreements

17.2 Standards

17.3 Policies

17.4 Regulations

References

Exercise Solutions

Appendix A: Some Formulas and Identities

Appendix B: Wcet Glossary Equation Index

Appendix C: Wcet Exam Tips

Appendix D: Symbols

Appendix E: Acronyms

Index

Wiley Series on Information and Communication Technology

Series Editors: T. Russell Hsing and Vincent K. N. Lau

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) book series focuses on creating useful connections between advanced communication theories, practical designs, and end-user applications in various next generation networks and broadband access systems, including fiber, cable, satellite, and wireless. The ICT book series examines the difficulties of applying various advanced communication technologies to practical systems such as WiFi, WiMax, B3G, etc., and considers how technologies are designed in conjunction with standards, theories, and applications.

The ICT book series also addresses application-oriented topics such as service management and creation and end-user devices, as well as the coupling between end devices and infrastructure.

T. Russell Hsing, PhD, is the Executive Director of Emerging Technologies and Services Research at Telcordia Technologies. He manages and leads the applied research and development of information and wireless sensor networking solutions for numerous applications and systems. Email: thsing@telcordia.com

Vincent K.N. Lau, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. His current research interest is on delay-sensitive cross-layer optimization with imperfect system state information. Email: eeknlau@ee.ust.hk

Wireless Internet and Mobile Computing: Interoperability and PerformanceYu-Kwong Ricky Kwok and Vincent K. N. Lau

RF Circuit DesignRichard C. Li

Digital Signal Processing Techniques and Applications in Radar Image ProcessingBu-Chin Wang

The Fabric of Mobile Services: Software Paradigms and Business DemandsShoshana Loeb, Benjamin Falchuk, and Euthimios Panagos

Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering TechnologiesK. Daniel Wong

Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Wong, K. Daniel.

Fundamentals of wireless communication engineering technologies / K. Daniel Wong.

p. cm. –(Information and communication technology series; 98)

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 978-0-470-56544-5

1.    Wireless communication systems. 2.    Wireless communication systems–Examinations–Study guides. I. Title.

TK5103.2.W59 2011

384.5–dc23                                                                   2011013591

To my parents and Almighty God

Foreword

Wireless communications is one of the most advanced and rapidly advancing technologies of our time. The modern wireless era has produced an array of technologies, such as mobile phones and WiFi networks, of tremendous economic and social value and almost ubiquitous market penetration. These developments have in turn created a substantial demand for engineers who understand the basic principles underlying wireless technologies, and who can help move the field forward to meet the even greater demands for wireless services and capacity expected in the future. Such an understanding requires knowledge of several distinct fields upon which wireless technologies are based: radio frequency physics and devices; communication systems engineering; and communication network architecture.

This book, by a leading advocate of the IEEE Communications Society's Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies certification program, offers an excellent survey of this very broad set of fundamentals. It further provides a review of basic foundational subjects, such as circuits, signals and systems, as well as coverage of several important overlying topics, such network management, security, and regulatory issues. This combination of breadth and depth of coverage allows the book to serve both as a complete course for students and practicing engineers, and as an entrée to the field for those wishing to undertake more advanced study or do research in a particular aspect of the field. Thus, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies is a very welcome addition to the pedagogical literature in this important field of technology.

H. Vincent Poor

Princeton, New Jersey 21

Preface

This book presents a broad survey of the fundamentals of wireless communication engineering technologies, spanning the field from radio frequency, antennas, and propagation, to wireless access technologies, to network and service architectures, to other topics, such as network management and security, agreements, standards, policies and regulations, and facilities infrastructure.

Every author has to answer two major questions: (1) What is the scope of coverage of the book, in terms of breadth of topics and depth of discussion of each topic, focus and perspective, and assumptions of prior knowledge of the readers? and (2) Who are the intended readers of the book? I am honored to have been a member of the Practice Analysis Task Force convened by IEEE Communications Society to draft the syllabus and examination specifications of IEEE Communication Society's Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies (WCET) certification program. The scope of coverage of this book has been strongly influenced by the syllabus of the WCET program.

This book is designed to be helpful to three main groups of readers:

Readers who would like to understand a broad range of topics in practical wireless communications engineering, from fundamentals and theory to practical aspects. For example, wireless engineers with a few years of experience in wireless might find themselves deeply involved with one or two aspects of wireless systems, but not actively keeping up-to-date with other aspects of wireless systems. This book might help such engineers to see how their work fits into the bigger picture, and how the specific parts of the overall system on which they work relate to other parts.Electrical engineering or computer science students with an interest in wireless communications, who might be interested to see how the seemingly dry, abstract theory they learn in class is actually applied in real-world wireless systems.Readers who are considering taking the WCET exam to become Wireless Certified Professionals. This group could include readers who are not sure if they would take the exam but might decide after reviewing the scope of coverage of the exam.

I hope this book can be a helpful resource for all three groups of readers. For the third group of readers, those with an interest in the WCET exam, several appendices may be useful, including a list of where various formulas from the WCET glossary are discussed in the text (Appendix B), and a few exam tips (Appendix C). However, the rest of the book has been written so that it can be read beneficially by any of the aforementioned groups of readers.

The book is divided into four main sections, three of which cover important areas in wireless systems: (1) radio frequency, antennas, and propagation; (2) wireless access technologies; and (3) network and service architectures. The fourth main section includes the remaining topics. The first three main parts of the book each begins with an introductory chapter that provides essential foundational material, followed by three chapters that go more deeply into specific topics. I have strived to arrange the materials so that the three chapters that go deeper into specific topics build on what is covered in the introductory chapter for that area. This is designed to help students who are new to an area, or not so familiar with it, to be able to go far on their own in self-study, through careful reading first of the introductory chapter, and then of the subsequent chapters. Numerous cross-references are sprinkled throughout the text, for example, so that students who are reading about a topic that relies on some foundational knowledge can see where the foundational knowledge is covered in the relevant introductory chapter. Also, references might be from the relevant introductory chapter to places where specific topics are covered in more detail, which may help motivate students to understand the material in the introductory chapter, as they can see how it is applied later.

The amount of technical knowledge that a wireless engineer “should know” is so broad that it is practically impossible to cover everything in one book, much less to cover everything at the depth that might satisfy every reader. In this book we have tried to select important topics that can be pulled together into coherent and engaging stories and development threads, rather than simply to present a succession of topics. For example, the results of some of the examples are used in later sections or chapters of the book. We also develop various notions related to autocorrelation and orthogonality with an eye to how the concepts might be needed later to help explain the fundamentals of CDMA.

Thanks to Diana Gialo, Simone Taylor, Sanchari Sil, Angioline Loredo, Michael Christian, and George Telecki of Wiley for their editorial help and guidance during the preparation of the manuscript, and to series editors Dr. Vincent Lau and Dr. T. Russell Hsing for their support and helpful comments. Thanks are also due to Dr. Wee Lum Tan, Dr. Toong Khuan Chan, Dr. Choi Look Law, Dr. Yuen Chau, HS Wong, Lian Pin Tee, Ir. Imran Mohd Ibrahim, and Jimson Tseng for their insightful and helpful reviews of some chapters in the book.

There is a web site for this book at www.danielwireless.com/wcet, where various supplementary materials, including a list of corrections and updates, will be posted.

K. Daniel Wong Ph.D. (Stanford), CCNA, CCNP (Cisco), WCP (IEEE)

Palo Alto, California

I

Preliminaries