Executive's Guide to Personal Security - David S. Katz - E-Book

Executive's Guide to Personal Security E-Book

David S. Katz

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Beschreibung

As a company or an individual, you cannot control the desire andthe ability of criminals and terrorists. However, you have fullcontrol over effectively lowering your risk of being attacked byincreasing security measures-physical, technical, andprocedural. The less vulnerable we are, the less attractive we areto any criminal or terrorist planning an attack. LetExecutive's Guide to Personal Security show you how to ensuresafety both at home and abroad. Order your copy today!

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title

Copyright

ABOUT THE WEBSITE

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

DEDICATION

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: Target: Corporate America

NOTES

CHAPTER 2: Awareness

COLOR CODE SYSTEM

PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO FEAR

MENTAL PREPAREDNESS

CONCLUSION

NOTE

CHAPTER 3: General Recommendations

KEEP A LOW PROFILE

PRECAUTIONS IN HIGH-RISK LOCATIONS

CHAPTER 4: Know Where You Are Going: Pretravel Research

AVOID POLITICALLY UNSTABLE REGIONS

COUNTRY-SPECIFIC TRAVEL WARNINGS

EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE

LOCAL CRIMINAL ACTIVITY

LOCAL LAWS AND CUSTOMS

NOTES

CHAPTER 5: Preparing to Travel

NECESSARY DOCUMENTS

MEDICATION AND MEDICAL INSURANCE

CHOOSE THE RIGHT AIRLINE

AIRLINE SAFETY TIPS

THE FLIGHT

BEHAVIOR ON ARRIVAL

CHAPTER 6: Residing Abroad

CHOOSING A PLACE TO LIVE

SECURING YOUR RESIDENCE

ENTRY POINTS

DOORS AND LOCKS

ADDITIONAL POINTS OF ENTRY

LIGHTING

RESIDENTIAL SAFE HAVEN

ALARM SYSTEMS AND VIDEO MONITORING

NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH

AVOID PREDICTABLE PATTERNS

ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED MEASURES

LOOK BEFORE YOU GO

LIMITING ACCESS TO THE HOME

WARDEN SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 7: Vehicle Safety Measures

VEHICLE PREPARATION AND SELECTION

SECURE YOUR VALUABLES

RECOGNIZE A SETUP

VEHICLE SAFETY CHECK

PARKING

CAR BOMBS

ROADSIDE EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

NOTE

CHAPTER 8: Principles of Route Selection

PROTECTING AGAINST CAR ATTACKS

EMERGENCY VEHICLE OPERATION

ANALYSIS OF A CAR ATTACK IN PAKISTAN

CHAPTER 9: Protective Equipment

BODY ARMOR

HOW SOFT BODY ARMOR IS CERTIFIED

EFFECTIVENESS

DETERMINING YOUR SOFT BODY ARMOR REQUIREMENTS

SELECTING THE RIGHT DESIGN

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AND SPECIAL THREATS

TACTICAL ARMOR AND RIFLE-RESISTANT PLATES

VESTS FOR CORRESPONDENTS

OTHER USES OF TACTICAL ARMOR

BALLISTIC HELMETS

SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS

OTHER BALLISTIC EQUIPMENT

ARMORED VEHICLES

GAS MASKS AND ESCAPE HOODS

CHILDREN’S MASKS

FIREARMS

NOTES

CHAPTER 10: Countersurveillance

SURVEILLANCE IS COMMONPLACE

WHAT IS SURVEILLANCE?

DETECTING SURVEILLANCE

METHODS OF SURVEILLANCE

TEAM SURVEILLANCE TECHNIQUES

TECHNICAL SURVEILLANCE

CHAPTER 11: Receipt of Mail and Packages

BASIC PROTECTIVE MEASURES

DOS AND DON’TS

DELIVERIES AT HOME

RECEIPT OF MAIL AND PACKAGES AT THE OFFICE

CHAPTER 12: Physical Site Security

CHAPTER 13: Technological Security

PERIMETER SECURITY SYSTEMS

INTRUSION DETECTION AND MONITORING SYSTEMS

LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER 14: Emergency Response Planning

DEVELOP AN EMERGENCY PLAN

THE COMMAND CENTER

EVACUATION OF PERSONNEL

EVACUATION OF PREMISES

NOTES

CHAPTER 15: Bomb Threats and Bombings

NOTE

CHAPTER 16: Hotel Safety and Security

KNOW THE AREA

ROOM SELECTION

IDENTIFY EMERGENCY ESCAPE ROUTES

YOUR HOTEL ROOM IS NOT YOUR HOME

ROOM SECURITY

FIRE

CHAPTER 17: Hijacked

CHANGE OF TERRORIST GOALS WARRANTS CHANGE IN STRATEGY

RECOMMENDATIONS

CONFRONTING THE THREAT

RESCUE ATTEMPTS

NOTE

CHAPTER 18: Hostage Survival

COOPERATE OR RESIST?

WHAT TO EXPECT

KEEP PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY ACTIVE

CHAPTER 19: Commercial Espionage

AREAS OF VULNERABILITY

CLASSIFICATION

HANDLING/STORAGE/DISPOSAL PROCEDURES FOR EACH CLASSIFICATION

CLEAN DESK POLICY

ACCESS LIMITATION

ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE COUNTERMEASURES

USE OF SECURE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR SENSITIVE CONVERSATIONS

COMPUTER SECURITY AND HACKING

NOTES

CHAPTER 20: Violence in the Workplace

RESPONSES

SUPPORTING LOCAL AUTHORITIES

CHAPTER 21: Criminal Activity

RESEARCH

USE COMMON SENSE

CHAPTER 22: Studying Abroad

CHANGE IN RECENT PATTERNS

LOCAL CRIMINAL HISTORY

LEARN AND RESPECT LOCAL LAWS AND CUSTOMS

NOTES

INDEX

End User License Agreement

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

CHAPTER 1: Target: Corporate America

Exhibit 1.1 Facilities Targeted by Terrorists 1996 – 2001

Exhibit 1.2 Economic Impact of Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center, Dated May 29, 2002

Exhibit 1.3 Anti-U.S. Attacks for the Year 2001

CHAPTER 5: Preparing to Travel

Exhibit 5.1 Security Pretravel Checklist

CHAPTER 6: Residing Abroad

Exhibit 6.1 Examples of High-Security Doors: Rav-Bariah Model 790 Residential High-Security Door (left), Rav-Bariah Model 790 Satin Nickel Door (center), and Rav-Bariah Forced Entry Model 9315 High-Security Door (right)

Exhibit 6.2 Travel on Assignment: Personal Awareness Form

CHAPTER 7: Vehicle Safety Measures

Exhibit 7.1 Bomb behind Tire (left) and Bomb behind Tire Close-Up (right)

Exhibit 7.2 Bomb on Top of Tire

Exhibit 7.3 Explosive in Box beneath Car

Exhibit 7.4 Bomb inside Trunk

Exhibit 7.5 Bomb inside Engine Compartment

Exhibit 7.6 Small Flashlight on Key Chain

CHAPTER 8: Principles of Route Selection

Exhibit 8.1 Choke Point Diagram

Exhibit 8.2 Two-Car Blocking Method: Stop Sign or Light

Exhibit 8.3 Three-Car Blocking Method: Alongside Barrier

Exhibit 8.4 Four-Car Blocking

CHAPTER 9: Protective Equipment

Exhibit 9.1 NIJ Standard for the Ballistic Resistance of Police Body Armor

Exhibit 9.2 Test Shot Pattern

Exhibit 9.3 Model Extreme ZX by American Body Armor

Exhibit 9.4 Author David Katz wearing a Protech Body Barricade Tactical Vest

Exhibit 9.5 RBR Tactical Vest

Exhibit 9.6 Rifle-Resistant Hard Armor Plates from Armor Holdings, Inc.

Exhibit 9.7 Bolt-Free RBR Ballistic Helmet

Exhibit 9.8 Armored Vehicle by O’Gara & Hess

Exhibit 9.9 O’Gara & Hess Levels of Protection

Exhibit 9.10 Duram Personal Escape Mask

Exhibit 9.11 Child’s Mask (left) and Infant Protective Suit (right)

CHAPTER 10: Countersurveillance

Exhibit 10.1 Fixed Surveillance

Exhibit 10.2 Point Vehicle Following from the Offset Position

Exhibit 10.3 Moving Box Surveillance

CHAPTER 11: Receipt of Mail and Packages

Exhibit 11.1 Innocent-Looking Package Requiring Special Handling Procedures

Exhibit 11.2 Mailroom Protocol

Exhibit 11.3 Simple Package Bomb and Triggering System

Exhibit 11.4 The Protectainer by Rav-Bariah

CHAPTER 12: Physical Site Security

Exhibit 12.1 Terrorist Methods of Attack, 1995-2000

Exhibit 12.2 Risk Assessment Form

Exhibit 12.3 Site Security Evaluation

Exhibit 12.4 Delta Scientific’s Bollards Providing Protection at the U.S. State Department

Exhibit 12.5 Crash Test of the DSC 720 Bollard System

Exhibit 12.6 Truck as It Impacts the DSC 720 System by Delta Scientific

Exhibit 12.7 Crash Test of a Delta IP 500 Portable Barricade

Exhibit 12.8 Hydraulic Wedge by Delta Scientific

Exhibit 12.9 Visitor Information Form

CHAPTER 13: Technological Security

Exhibit 13.1 Examples of Magal Security Systems: DTR-2000 Taut Wire Intrusion Detection (left) and Inno-Fence (right)

Exhibit 13.2 Magal DTS-1000

Exhibit 13.3 The MagNet System by Magal

Exhibit 13.4 Examples of Zamir Systems: Zamir Recognition System (left) and Zamir System at Security Checkpoint in Ariel, Israel (right)

CHAPTER 14: Emergency Response Planning

Exhibit 14.1 Departmental Responsibilities in Response Plan Development

Exhibit 14.2 Emergency Contact Numbers

Exhibit 14.3 Emergency Response Guide

Exhibit 14.4 Employee Emergency Information Form

CHAPTER 15: Bomb Threats and Bombings

Exhibit 15.1 Sample Bomb Threat Checklist

CHAPTER 22: Studying Abroad

Exhibit 22.1 Americans Studying Abroad in 2001

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Executive’s Guide to Personal Security

David S. Katz

Ilan Caspi

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New JerseyPublished simultaneously in Canada

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, e-mail: [email protected]

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

For general information on our other products and services, or technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at 800-762-2974, outside the United States at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Katz, David S., 1960–Executive’s guide to personal security / David S. Katz, Ilan Caspi.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 0-471-44987-31. Executives—Protection. 2. Executives—Crimes against—Prevention. 3. Business travel—Safety measures. 4. Violence in the workplace—Prevention. 5. Corporations—Security measures. 6. Office buildings—Security measures. 7. Emergency management. 8. Private security services. I. Title: Guide to personal security.II. Caspi, Ilan. III. Title.HV8290.K38   2003658.4'73—dc212003000571

ABOUT THE WEBSITE

As the purchaser of this book, Executive’s Guide to Personal Security, you have access to the supporting website:

www.wiley.com/go/personalsecurity

The website contains Word files for Appendix A, “Security and Awareness Checklists and Forms.” These forms are easily downloadable and can be customized to suit your needs. Also available on the website is Appendix B, “Vendors,” which provides a list of personal security vendors and their contact information.

The password to enter this site is: security

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

David S. Katz, a former senior Special Agent with the Drug Enforcement Administration, is an expert in conducting complex international criminal investigations, high risk arrests, undercover operations, physical and technical surveillance, and intelligence analysis. Former Special Agent Katz is a federally certified firearms and tactical instructor who also spent four years as a primary firearms instructor at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. During that posting, he taught firearms and tactics to several thousand federal agents, state and local law enforcement officers, SWAT team members, military personnel, and foreign counterparts. He is a recognized authority in the field of law enforcement arrest tactics and investigative techniques and has provided instruction to law enforcement officers around the world.

Mr. Katz also was the leading federal law enforcement expert in the design, testing, and use of body armor and related protective equipment. He developed the first comprehensive body armor testing program in the history of the DEA. Currently, he is collaborating with the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University on a variety of body-armor-related projects.

During his assignment at Quantico, Special Agent Katz was the DEA liaison to the Israeli Secret Service, developing a cooperative relationship with its field agents and training staff. In August 2000, he provided advanced tactical firearms training to Israeli General Security Service (Shin Bet) instructors in Israel and provided firearms and tactical training to the Diplomatic Security Service Agents and U.S. Marines guarding the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv. He also provided tactical firearms training to many high profile police and military units, including the marine detail assigned to HMX-1, the president’s official helicopter. Mr. Katz holds a degree of law from Hofstra University Law School.

Mr. Katz has written several articles about tactics and the selection and use of body armor. He is currently the president and chief operating officer for Global Security Group, LLC, a risk management and counterterrorism company. He can be contacted at [email protected]

Ilan Caspi is a security and counterterrorism expert with more than 10 years of experience in the military, intelligence, and security industry. A former member of the Israeli General Security Agency (Shin Bet), the Israeli Diplomatic Security Service, and El Al Israeli Airlines, he is an expert in security awareness training, conducting threat assessments, and developing comprehensive security protocols for international organizations.

Before joining the Israeli intelligence and security community, Mr. Caspi served in a combat unit in the Israeli Air Force and participated in many antiterrorist operations. During his service, he received the President of Israel’s “Most Distinguished Soldier” award.

As a member of Shin Bet, Mr. Caspi served in the Office of the Prime Minister of Israel, where he specialized in the field of executive and dignitary protection.

With El Al Israel Airlines, Mr. Caspi acquired extensive operational practice in the field of airport security management and civil aviation. He conducted security surveys at various airports and served as an on-board security agent.

Mr. Caspi applied his knowledge and skills in the international arena as a member of the Israeli Diplomatic Security Service. He conducted vulnerability assessments of international facilities and updated security protocols. During his tenure at the Israeli embassy in Washington, D.C., he reviewed the embassy’s existing security protocols, implemented improvements, and trained diplomats on personal security awareness while traveling and working abroad. As an expert in radical Islamic terrorist organizations, Mr. Caspi routinely analyzed intelligence data and formulated response plans to meet identified threats.

Mr. Caspi received his Bachelor of Arts degree (cum laude) in Political Science and International Affairs from Ptucha University in Tel Aviv, Israel. He can be reached at [email protected]

For my mother, Beatrice. Mom, everything I have been able to achieve is because of you. My faults are my own.

For my beautiful wife, Galina. Thank you for your love and support.

For my sons, Daniel and Michael. No father could be prouder.

For my in-laws, Nelli and Yefim, for all you have done.

For my grandmother-in-law, Sofya, for making me feel like a grandson again.

To my dear friend and colleague, Ilan Caspi.

David S. Katz

To my colleague and friend, David Katz, for all his hard work.

To my parents, Etti and Yossi, for all you have done for me.

To my wife, Melanie, for her patience, love, and support.

And most important, to my baby daughter, Ella, who gave new meaning to my life and adds endless joy to each day.

Ilan Caspi

PREFACE

On September 11, 2001, thousands of people arrived for work at the World Trade Center in downtown New York City. They left their homes and families and began what they thought was another ordinary day. The majority were Americans but there were also citizens from nearly every nation on earth. It is likely that very few had ever heard the name Bin Laden or Al Qaeda. None of that mattered to 19 of their fellow human beings who set out that morning to kill as many of them as possible. Nearly 3,000 people died that day without knowing why.

In Pakistan, on November 12, 1997, four U.S. citizens, employees of an American oil company, traveled to Karachi, Pakistan, on a temporary assignment. They left their hotels early in the morning and were picked up by a local driver working for their company. Several minutes later, they were ambushed and shot to death by Islamic fundamentalists in revenge for the conviction of Aimal Kansi, a Pakistani citizen, for the 1993 slaying of two employees outside CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.

In Bali, Indonesia, on October 12, 2002, terrorist bombers killed more than 180 tourists. One month later, on November 28, 2002, bombers killed 11 tourists at a hotel near Mombassa, Kenya.

An American nurse assassinated in Lebanon. An American invalid thrown overboard from a cruise ship. A U.S. diplomat gunned down as he leaves his home. A German family in China stabbed to death by burglars. The list is endless. Ordinary people targeted by well-trained and wellfinanced terrorists. In addition, each day, in every part of the world, foreign travelers are victimized by local criminals. While we cannot control the criminal's or terrorist's desire to attack us, is there anything we can do to defend ourselves? Can we reduce our level of vulnerability? Can we lessen the chances that anyone who attacks us will succeed?

The way to lessen our chances of becoming a victim of terrorism or crime is by learning how to become less vulnerable. By becoming less vulnerable, we minimize the probability that anyone seeking to victimize us will be successful. Often, this will cause cause criminals, and even terrorists, to move on to an easier target.

It is clear that the occupants of the Trade Center could have done nothing to prevent the attack. That task was the responsibility of the airlines and federal law enforcement agencies. However, after the attack occurred, there were many things that individuals and companies could have done by way of emergency planning that could have minimized the number of those killed and injured. There are many things that can be done to reduce the chance of becoming a victim of terrorism. And the same methods are also effective against the far more prevalent and mundane risks associated with crime.

This book teaches executives, employees, students, and tourists how to recognize and prepare for the real threats faced by ordinary individuals in today's world. It will provide you with the type of knowledge necessary to empower you to face these threats—information formerly reserved for security professionals and government employees. You will learn about situational awareness, risk analysis, and countersurveillance. You will learn how to travel safely by selecting the right airline, the right hotels, and rental cars appropriate to your security needs.

If you plan to live abroad, you will learn how to select a safe neighborhood, how to secure your home against intruders, and how to choose the right road to drive on. If you are an executive responsible for the safety of your employees and corporate assets, you will learn how to secure your facility and information, how to formulate emergency protocols, and how to handle a crisis. If you are a student abroad, or even just a tourist on vacation, this book will arm you with the necessary knowledge to take the actions that will enhance the physical safety and security of your property, your family, and yourself.

INTRODUCTION

Effective security precautions require a continuous and conscious awareness of one’s environment as well as the need to exercise prudence, judgment and common sense. This is especially true where the traveler must adapt to new cultures, customs and laws. Personal security cannot be delegated to others; it is the responsibility of each one of us, as we promote American and commercial interests around the globe.

—Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher, “Personal Security Guidelines for the American Business Traveler Overseas”

Tens of millions of Americans travel outside of the United States each year. The same is true for millions of citizens of Western European nations. Most are traveling for pleasure. However, there are also millions of American and European citizens who live, study, work, and raise their families overseas. While the exact number of these expatriates is impossible to determine, a rough estimate can be made. As far as the number of American expatriates, the 1990 census documented 925,845 Americans as residents of foreign countries. This number, however, tells only a small part of the story, as the census figures do not reflect the total number of Americans residing in other countries. The numbers only account for U.S. military personnel and their dependents assigned to military bases on foreign soil. Also included are the crews of naval vessels assigned to the 6th and 7th fleets, U.S. merchant marine crews, and the federal civilian employees and their dependents serving at overseas posts. Not included are the several hundred thousand Americans living abroad while working for multinational companies or attending foreign universities. Also not reflected in the census figures are the hundreds of thousands of Americans retiring abroad to countries where the cost of living is low or those married to foreign nationals. The tens of thousands who return to their ancestral homeland or simply move overseas for other personal reasons are also not counted. How many Americans actually are residing abroad? While the exact number is unknown, the Association of Americans Resident Overseas (AARO) places the estimate at between 1 and 6 million. The lower estimate cannot be correct. The census numbers list nearly 1 million residents of foreign countries. Recent estimates indicate approximately 140,000 university-level students living abroad. Certainly an additional several hundred thousand Americans are living and working abroad for private corporations, not to mention the hundreds of thousands of hyphenated Americans returning to their native country. The actual number, therefore, is at least in the middle of the estimated range, which means that at least several million American citizens are currently residing outside of the continental United States at any given time.

A determination of the numbers of European citizens residing abroad is even more difficult to compile. Citizens of the United Kingdom (including Canadians and Australians) live and travel abroad in great numbers. The British Ministry of Tourism maintains statistics relative to the travel habits of British citizens. These statistics show that citizens of the United Kingdom made more than 58.3 million trips abroad between the years 1997 and 2001. Citizens of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Greece, and other countries of Western Europe also make millions of trips abroad each year.

These Americans, Europeans, Australians, and Canadians, regardless of whom they work for or why they are living abroad, face many challenges in adjusting to life outside of their native lands. Often they are overwhelmed by the necessity of communicating in another language, adapting themselves to local customs, and living in a society devoid of many of the modern conveniences we take for granted. They also must face the prospect that, in many parts of the world, being an American or European citizen exposes them to a grave and very real danger of death or serious injury. Westerners abroad are increasingly at risk of being harmed or worse and have begun to focus on their physical safety more than at any time in our history. They have all begun to ask what they can and should do to prevent becoming another statistic.

Employees of the U.S. federal government and their dependents have an advantage; they receive at least some training regarding personal security matters. All government personnel, prior to being posted in a foreign country, must attend the Security Overseas Seminar given by the U.S. Department of State in its training facility in Arlington, Virginia. This excellent and well-run two-day school is designed to provide the employee with some of the necessary knowledge about how to minimize threats to personal security. In addition, the State Department strongly encourages dependent family members to attend the training. The problem with even this excellent program is that two days is not enough time to properly prepare someone, especially a layperson with no background in security or law enforcement, for the real risks that Americans abroad will likely encounter. Furthermore, the course subject matter is the same regardless of which country employees may be posted to. An individual stationed at the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa gets the same training as someone posted to Peshawar in Pakistan, despite the very real and significant differences in the threats that may be encountered in those two countries. The important issues are all touched on and the instructors are all experienced professionals. However, as is common with most government training programs, they are forced to present too much information in too short a time period. This one-size-fits-all approach is, unfortunately, the rule rather than the exception in almost any type of program offered by the federal government. Although the State Department could spend more time providing country-specific training, local Regional Security Officers (RSOs) do provide more thorough training once employees arrive at their post, and the Congress has mandated that every U.S. Embassy receive a security briefing and evaluation by Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) agents every three years. In addition, employees of the State Department and the numerous other government agencies maintaining offices in embassies around the world have the advantage of being protected by the DSS as well as the embassy’s marine guard detail. The RSO, a trained security professional, is always available to provide the embassy staff with the answers to their security questions and needs. This is not the case with private industry. No mandatory training program is provided to those Americans employed overseas by private companies. In fact, to our knowledge, no programs in private industry mandate that security training be given to personnel working abroad to familiarize them with the techniques that will increase their level of personal safety while living abroad. While many of the large multinationals do have security departments that offer some assistance in this regard, very little actual instruction is provided to enhance the safety of employees. Private security companies and security consultants can provide this type of training, but they are seldom contracted to teach corporate employees the fundamentals of personal security. Such training, when it does exist, is generally reserved for high-profile corporate officers. It is not made available to the rank and file.

The same is true for American and European students studying abroad. Many schools that participate in exchange programs with universities in foreign countries offer seminars designed to help students acclimate to their new environment. A basic language course may be offered as well as an overview of the culture of the host country. This training is designed to reduce the level of stress attendant to adapting to a new and perhaps very different culture. Typically, information relative to security issues is not presented or, if it is, is offered on a superficial level.

To partially remedy this situation, the U.S. State Department has created special divisions whose task it is to help Americans address their safety concerns while living in a foreign country. For the international business traveler, the State Department established the Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) in 1985, in order to provide American companies that have overseas assets with a forum to share and disseminate information relative to security matters. OSAC has published several excellent publications that have provided guidance for the business traveler as well as Americans working abroad. In addition, to further improve the level of security awareness, the State Department sends DSS agents to large companies abroad to provide security briefings and related training. These DSS agents do a great deal of training for the employees of oil companies and other large American businesses overseas, such as Coca-Cola. However, the DSS responds only by invitation, and the availability of such courses depends largely on the personnel and resources available for teaching private concerns at any given time. The primary function of the DSS is to support the government mission overseas by providing protection for the local embassy and its staff. Assisting private companies, while it does further the goals and interests of the United States abroad, is secondary to that overriding protective function. DSS agents provide excellent instruction when availability of manpower allows. It is recommended that your company request DSS services. However, demand for such training far exceeds the ability of the DSS to accommodate it. If you happen to be an employee of a small company with offices abroad or are an American working for a foreign corporation, it is unlikely that the DSS will be able to accommodate your training request. The Service will, however, provide you with important and useful information and will direct you to other resources that may be of help. The gaps in providing instruction as well as other services related to security must be filled by private security consultants and other providers. It is, therefore, your personal responsibility to access these other options and take steps to enhance your own level of safety.

As an American citizen abroad, you have the opportunity to attend scheduled security briefings and training offered by the State Department in overseas embassies. Congress has mandated that every U.S. Embassy receive a complete security evaluation every three years. During these evaluations, the DSS provides a security seminar and briefing for embassy personnel and American citizens living in the host country even if they do not work at the embassy. If you are living abroad, contact the local embassy or consulate and ask when the next such seminar will be held. The security-related information presented during these seminars is invaluable. In addition, many embassies and consulates routinely provide inhouse security workshops that are also open to Americans regardless of their employment status. These programs are in place and are available to American citizens living in the host country. Individuals must contact the embassy and find out when the next training date is scheduled. These workshops or courses teach the simple rules that must be followed to avoid becoming a victim of terrorism or violent crime abroad. Remember, the responsibility to learn about the availability of these courses is your own. The embassy is not going to contact all expatriate Americans and cajole them into attending the next security seminar. You need to seek out available training and learn to exercise prudence and caution while living abroad. If you are a citizen of another country, contact your own foreign affairs ministry before you travel. By all means register with your country’s embassy or consulate when you arrive in a new country.

In the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001, the potential for attacks against American and Western citizens and interests, both at home and overseas, has become increasingly likely. At the time of this writing, 189 organizations have been identified as terrorist entities. At the risk of sounding melodramatic, at this very moment there are terrorists and their sympathizers planning acts of violence against Americans all over the world. They do not distinguish between combatants and noncombatants, between civilians or government officials, or even among men, women, and children. Virtually every intelligence agency in the world has concluded that future attacks on Americans, their interests, and their possessions are a virtual certainty. It is not a matter of “if “ but “when.” However, even in this dangerous period in history, many people employed overseas ignore the vitally important personal security issues that affect not only themselves but their families as well. Even some of the largest corporations in the United States demonstrate extraordinary apathy in this regard. Shortly after the tragic kidnapping and murder of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl, the authors had dinner with an acquaintance who is an executive with a major news corporation. This man travels abroad more than he is home and frequently travels to areas that are the subject of specific terrorist threat warnings posted by the State Department. We asked him what type of training he had been given relative to his personal security while traveling. We were more than a bit surprised when he answered that he had never received any training, despite frequent trips to the Middle East, Russia, India, the Philippines, and other countries where there are real and documented security risks to foreigners. We asked if he at least had access to intelligence information regarding security issues in the countries he was traveling to. Again the answer was negative. Nor did he even bother to access the State Department website and read the posted travel advisories. He said that his company had no program in place to gather information relative to country-specific dangers that its employees might face. He said that sometimes the company provided him with a bodyguard, but for the most part he was on his own. Furthermore, the only type of intelligence gathering he knew of in private industry was commercial intelligence. He explained that most large domestic and multinational corporations routinely spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to learn everything they can about individuals with whom they intend to do business—a prudent concern to be sure. Big companies hire investigators to compile complete dossiers on a prospective partner’s personal habits, finances, bank accounts, romantic interests, and a variety of other confidential areas. They use excellent investigative firms, such as Kroll Worldwide, and try to obtain the same information on competitors as well. Millions of dollars are spent each year in this manner. Unfortunately, almost nothing is spent teaching employees how to be safe.

An important factor to consider is that terrorist activities are not the only source of danger Westerners must face overseas. In fact, you will have a far greater chance of becoming a victim of ordinary criminal activity than you will of becoming the target of terrorism. In many countries, there are criminal industries that thrive on victimizing foreign visitors to their country. A robbery or even a property crime against an American businessperson is almost guaranteed to provide a richer reward for their actions than crimes directed against their own fellow citizens. Fortunately, the security precautions that you should take to reduce your chance of being targeted by terrorists are also effective in deterring common street crime.

America’s corporate interests can no longer afford to be negligent with respect to security matters. The same is true for companies from the European Union. Their employees and facilities are becoming increasingly attractive targets to terrorists and criminals. Furthermore, all Western citizens, even students or tourists, must understand that they are very desirable targets to those seeking to use terror to advance their political agenda or to vent their misguided rage at the United States, Europe, or Israel. And unfortunately for high-profile executives, government officials or employees, and celebrities, the level of this particular threat increases along with the level of the status or notoriety of the individual. However, even ordinary citizens are facing risks. They are also often the first choice to the local criminal element seeking an easy target for a robbery.

Each year hundreds of Americans and Europeans are injured or killed overseas. Traffic accidents, terrorism, street crime, and disease cause most of those incidents. The events of September 11 have only made matters worse. As we complete the final editing of this book, we have just heard word of the assassination in Amman, Jordan, of Lawrence Foley, a senior U.S. Diplomat working for USAID. Mr. Foley was shot to death outside his home. Thus far, no claims of responsibility have been made nor has any assailant been identified. It seems beyond question, however, that this senseless murder was an act of political terrorism by an Islamic terrorist group. It is also too early to have received an analysis of the act and whether any security precautions could have prevented his death. On this same date, we are reading a news account published by the Jewish press entitled “How to Kidnap American Citizens.” The article describes how an extremist Islamic online forum recently posted a guide describing in detail the manner in which Americans can be kidnapped. The guide discusses how potential kidnappers can choose the best location to effect kidnapping, various methods to use, and how to gather intelligence about the intended victim. Inexplicably, although it can be found in other news sources on the Internet, this story has not been given any exposure in the mainstream media. In November 2001 nearly 200 people, mostly Australian nationals, were killed in a bombing of a night spot in Bali.

This year, hundreds more Western citizens will be robbed, assaulted, raped, kidnapped, or murdered. Most of these incidents could be prevented by adherence to basic rules of personal safety. Lives are lost needlessly because individuals do not know what to do during a fire or in a medical emergency. Money and other valuables are stolen because of simple inattention to a few commonsense security practices. Whether you are a highly placed executive managing your company’s interests abroad or a student going overseas as part of an exchange program to promote diversity and understanding, this book will provide you with the necessary information to avoid becoming another statistic in a growing ledger book. This is your commonsense approach to personal security abroad.

CHAPTER 1Target: Corporate America

In the aftermath of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon by the Al Qaeda organization, it has become clear that Western economic interests, particularly American corporations, have become the most desirable target of terror groups seeking to further their own varied political agendas. In the past, the prime targets of terrorist groups were military bases and personnel and official U.S. government facilities. Striking at the American military was the foremost priority, especially for radical Islamic fundamentalist groups. Recall the murder of 242 Marines in Lebanon and the attacks on the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia and the USS Cole. Governmental and diplomatic facilities were also primary targets of groups like Al Qaeda, which was responsible for the car bomb attacks that destroyed the U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in Africa. To be sure, there always were the occasional terror attacks that targeted civilians. Kidnappings were frequent occurrences in many parts of the world, and hostages were taken to be used as bargaining chips or for ransom. The spate of airline hijackings in the 1970s and 1980s, the attack on the Achille Lauro, and the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, are examples of incidents specifically targeting civilians. However, in the not too distant past, the largest and most well-financed operations seemed to be reserved for attacks on official targets. This is no longer the case. Today most experts on international terror organizations agree that terrorists have changed their targeting priorities. Unquestionably, the current targets of choice are Western, or more specifically American, economic interests.

It may seem as if this shift in targeting priorities followed the attacks of September 11, 2001. This is actually not the case; the trend had already been well documented long before the Twin Towers fell. Remember, the first attack on the World Trade Center, on February 26, 1993, was undertaken with the goal of causing one of the towers to topple over and take its twin with it. Clearly, the intent in the first attack was to cause the deaths of many thousands of civilian noncombatants. The ugly truth is that terror groups the world over have made the murder of civilians the first priority. Exhibit 1.1 clearly documents the trend over the five-year period before the attacks on September 11, 2001. In fact, this exhibit shows that attacks against military targets, traditionally thought of as the prime target for these so-called freedom fighters, actually represent the smallest target category.

Exhibit 1.1 Facilities Targeted by Terrorists 1996 – 2001

Source: U.S. Department of State, “Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001,” Washington, DC: Office for Counterterrorism, May 21, 2001.

In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, this trend will certainly continue and is expected to do so at an accelerated rate. Why is this so? What makes civilian economic targets so important to terror groups?

If you ask the average person to describe his or her most vivid impression of the horrors perpetrated on September 11, virtually everyone will recall and describe the image of the collapsing World Trade Center towers, the terrible scene of ordinary people leaping out of the burning towers to their deaths and the thousands of office workers and rescuers killed. The attack on the Pentagon seems to have been largely ignored, almost forgotten. Why? Why do civilian deaths seem to shock us in a way that military casualties do not?

The very idea of terror attacks on civilian targets creates a visceral reaction in all of us. Those who died in the World Trade Center weren’t soldiers or instruments of U.S. foreign policy. They were ordinary folks simply going to work to support their families. They kissed their spouses good-bye that morning never imagining that this was the last time they would ever come home to them. The media reported numerous stories of people trapped on floors above the impact of the planes phoning home on cell phones to the loved ones they knew they would not see again in this world. These images were enough to terrorize average citizens into changing jobs and moving away from crowded population centers. In the aftermath of the attacks, rentals of office space in the Empire State Building, once again the highest building in New York City, began to drop precipitously as people began to view the stately building not as prime commercial real estate but as the new prime target for the terrorists. As Vladimir Ilyich Lenin observed, “the purpose of terrorism is to terrify.” Certainly attacks against innocent men, women, and children do just that.

However, other, more practical reasons better explain why economic targets are now so desirable to those seeking to destroy our way of life and diminish American influence throughout the world. One is the fact that the attacks on the World Trade Center resulted in consequences to the American and world economies that exceeded even the most optimistic expectations of Osama Bin Laden and his associates. They immediately recognized that economic targets were not only easier to hit but also that there was an unlimited supply of such targets that could be easily struck with more far-reaching effects than attacks against embassies and military bases.

Our system of government, with our constitutionally guaranteed freedom and liberty, is the enemy of radical fundamentalism. Fundamentalists loathe democracy because it is the antithesis of the repressive theocratic system they aspire to create. Radical Muslim extremists know all too well that the fanaticism they seek to promote cannot flourish within an open society where freedom of thought and expression is protected. They are also aware that the most effective way to combat the spread of Western-style democracies is to attack the foundations of economic prosperity that makes it so powerful. Damage the American economy and you damage American ability to spread its ideals throughout the world. Bin Laden himself made this observation in a tape that surfaced shortly after the attacks.1 World conditions and political realities guarantee that the United States and its interests, possessions, and citizens will continue to be targeted at home and abroad. Corporate targets have become more desirable as terrorists seek to use economic disruption to achieve political goals.

An examination of the practical advantages of attacking corporate targets will further illustrate the point and illustrate why civilian economic targets are so attractive. There is a distinction made between so-called hard targets, that is, well-defended military bases and well-prepared embassies, and “soft targets” with little or no security such as office building and industrial centers. Military targets:

Are generally harder to strike because of enhanced security

Result in military casualties

Generally cause loss of government property

Cause damage that is generally confined to the target itself

Attacks against civilian economic targets are more desirable to terror groups because economic targets:

Are more vulnerable, easier to strike

Result in loss of civilian life

Cause loss of private and public property

Create widespread damage to the fragile world economy

The September 11 attacks clearly illustrate the distinct differences between hard and soft targets as well as the effects of a successful attack on each. Two targets were selected and attacked: a hard target, the Pentagon, and a soft target, the World Trade Center. The disparity in the actual effects of those attacks is great. The destruction of the Twin Towers not only killed many more people than the attack on the Pentagon but also caused economic repercussions that were still being felt more than a year later.

Exhibit 1.2 shows some of the costs to private industry as well as the loss of tax revenue associated with these attacks. While the actual tally is still incomplete, even this partial accounting shows the enormity of the economic loss. Other data estimate in excess of $60 billion (some estimates put this closer to closer to $100 billion) in property damage and casualty losses alone. In addition, the attendant economic loss to the City of New York is estimated at more than $83 billion. These staggering amounts actually surpass the annual budgets of many of the world’s governments.

Exhibit 1.2 Economic Impact of Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center, Dated May 29, 2002

Source: GAO review of studies of the economic impact of September 11, 2001.

The insurance industry has been particularly hard hit. Recent estimates have placed the amount of insured loss at approximately $58 billion. The enormous financial loss to insurance companies will compel underwriters to require that steps be taken to reduce the likelihood of financial loss caused by terrorism. Corporations will likely find that their insurers will exclude terror acts in their policies or require certification that antiterrorist measures have been taken. Every facility, structure, or organization that is deemed to be an attractive target for terrorist activity is being charged more for insurance coverage. For example, small neighborhood synagogues in Brooklyn, New York, have had their liability premiums raised by thousands of dollars per year simply because Jewish interests and buildings are deemed as being at risk of attack.

The airline industry, which seems to be constantly facing economic challenges even during relatively mild downturns in the national economy, was also dealt a severe blow by the 2001 attacks. Many people viewed the federally funded settlements given to the surviving family members of the victims of the attacks as a bailout for the airline industry. To collect the government benefit, the recipients were required to forgo their right to any other legal action to recover damages, such as suing United or American Airlines for negligence in not providing an adequate level of security.

In addition, business was disrupted in New York City, the financial capital of the world, for months. The American stock market, already reeling under the collapse of the tech stocks, was further hard hit, as were global markets. Some estimates attribute more than 40 percent of the current economic downturn to the attack on the World Trade Center. No terror attack in history had ever created the same amount of widespread damage or generated such a powerful response.

Compare these far-reaching effects to the results of the attack on the Pentagon. Certainly the damage done was far more localized. While the pain and suffering of the families who lost loved ones in the Pentagon is no less than those who lost relatives at the Trade Center, comparatively little attention has been paid to them. The nationally televised interviews always seem to focus on the surviving family members from the Twin Towers. Civilian deaths and injuries always create a stronger reaction in the general public because the death of an ordinary citizen is far easier for the average person to relate to. Terrorists have, to be sure, grasped that fact and are focusing the bulk of their assets and abilities on planning additional attacks on U.S. civilian and economic targets. In October 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued a warning that Al Qaeda might have been specifically planning attacks on U.S. economic interests. Al Qaeda leaders, the report stated, “aim to undermine what they see as the backbone of U.S. power, the economy.” The FBI said that “an attack may have been approved” and that “Our adversary is trying to portray American influence as based on economic might and therefore seeks to strike an economic target prominent enough for economic aid and symbolic reasons that it would have immediate resonance around the world.”2 This analysis is actually quite correct. The economic might of the United States is what allows it to remain the most influential force in the world. Our system of democracy, with all its attendant personal freedoms, would not have captured the imagination of the oppressed people of the world were it not for the prosperity and economic success it has produced.

The State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism has documented this trend in its “Patterns of Global Terrorism” report dated May 21, 2002. Exhibit 1.3 shows a comparison of the number of anti-U.S. attacks for the year 2001.

Exhibit 1.3 Anti-U.S. Attacks for the Year 2001

Source: U.S. Department of State, “Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001,” Washington, DC: Office for Counterterrorism, May 21, 2001.

More attacks targeted U.S. economic interests during the year 2001 than all other attacks combined. Furthermore, the trend exactly mirrors the statistics of terrorist incidents worldwide shown in Exhibit 1.1, which showed that the overwhelming numbers of terrorist attacks were directed at business facilities. The same is true for the attacks specifically directed at American interests during the year 2001. In fact, the same is true for the past 10 years. Terrorists deliberately target business interests. This trend will certainly continue as the terrorists clearly understand the financial damage that the World Trade Center attack caused. They understand, correctly, that the government of the United States is subject to pressure from its citizens. That is the nature of our representative republic. The government also is subject to the influence of the leading U.S. corporations that have an arguably disproportionate power as a result of the enormous contributions they make to political candidates. If corporate profits are endangered, terrorists reason, corporations will use their influence to persuade the U.S. government from taking actions that may result in economic harm to big business. What the terrorists always fail to grasp is the level of resolve of the American people. Americans are refugees from the type of tyrannical regimes that many of the terror groups seek to impose. Americans have an understanding of right and wrong and will not be bullied or intimidated into doing anything that is not consistent with our core values. This is why we continue the fight against terror and why American business continues to thrive in virtually every market in the world.

This is the current political reality of our time. We continue to do business in the face of threats from those opposed to our way of life. We do this knowing that our mere presence makes us targets for the groups that seek our destruction. The only course of action open to us is to prepare ourselves to face this type of threat and counter the danger we face from well-trained and well-financed fanatical groups that are willing to kill themselves if it will cause harm to America. And, unfortunately, this is likely to be the reality for the foreseeable future. We must, therefore, appreciate this new reality and take the necessary actions to protect ourselves.

How should we begin to answer these new challenges? The first step is to understand that you are at risk and may very well be targeted for attack by terrorists or common criminals. Do not assume that you are not already in the cross-hairs of some radical organization. If you begin by honestly evaluating your risk, then you can take the precautions necessary to avoid becoming a target.

Common elements in criminal and terrorist attacks must be considered when determining a level of risk associated with a particular facility or individual. Focus needs to be paid to both the potential attacker and the potential target. Among these elements related to the potential assailants are:

Desire:

Individuals and organizations need to have a desire or motivation to justify their actions or receive some tangible benefit from their actions.

Ability:

Individuals and organizations need to recognize their ability (physical skill, knowledge, available assets) to conduct a strike.

Opportunity:

Individuals and organizations select their targets based on vulnerability.

Now the analysis must shift to the potential victim. Are you an attractive target? Criminals and terrorists manifest desire, acquire ability, and then look for opportunity. You may very well become a target if you meet these three elements:

1.

Suitability:

Would an attack on you further the goals of a criminal or terrorist?

2.

Vulnerability:

Are you vulnerable to attack?

3.

Probability of Success:

Is an attack on you likely to succeed?

A potential civilian target can do nothing to influence the desire and ability of terrorist groups. Concerted efforts by the military and law enforcement establishments of law-abiding nations certainly can have an impact on terrorists’ ability to strike. Military action, arrest, and harrassment by directed law enforcement effort and stemming the flow of the money that finances these groups greatly interferes with their ability to operate. Even so, active and well-prepared terror cells still are ready to initiate strikes against U.S. interests. However, several factors in the equation are within the control of the potential target, and they all are tied to your particular level of vulnerability. Reduce vulnerability and you provide less of an opportunity to an attacker. Providing less opportunity dramatically reduces the probability of a terrorist group making a successful attack. Therefore, assessing and eliminating vulnerability is the most effective method of enhancing security.

What is the current situation as of today? At the time of this writing, the U.S. State Department had put out a general worldwide alert reminding all U.S. citizens abroad that they were targets and were likely to remain so. The caution stated:

This Public Announcement is being updated to alert Americans to an increased potential for anti-American violence, including terrorist actions against U.S. citizens, as a result of the military action in Iraq. The U.S. government remains deeply concerned about the security of Americans overseas. American citizens are reminded that it is more important than ever to maintain a high level of vigilance and to take appropriate steps to increase their security awareness. This Worldwide Caution supersedes that issued on February 6, 2003 and expires on July 20, 2003.

As a result of military action in Iraq, there is a potential for retaliatory actions to be taken against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Public demonstrations carry the potential for precipitating violence directed at American citizens, symbols associated with the United States or other U.S. and Western interests.

The threat to U.S. citizens includes the risk of attacks by terrorist groups. Terrorist actions may include, but are not limited to, suicide operations, bombings or kidnappings. Possible threats include conventional weapons such as explosive devices or non-conventional weapons, including chemical or biological agents. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and civilian targets. These may include facilities where Americans and other foreigners congregate or visit, such as residential areas, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, hotels, outdoor recreation events or resorts and beaches. U.S. citizens should increase their security awareness at such locations, avoid them, or switch to other locations where Americans in large numbers generally do not congregate.

U.S. government facilities worldwide remain at a heightened state of alert and some have drawn down their dependents and/or personnel. These facilities may temporarily close or suspend public services from time to time for security reasons. In those instances, U.S. embassies and consulates will make every effort to provide emergency services to American citizens. Monitor the local news and maintain contact with the nearest American embassy or consulate.

As the Department continues to develop information on any potential security threats to Americans overseas, it shares credible threat information through its Consular Information Program documents, available on the Internet athttp://travel.state.gov. In addition to information on the Internet, U.S. travelers can get up-to-date information on security conditions by calling 1-888-407-4747 in the U.S. and outside the U.S. and Canada on a regular toll line at 1-317-472-2328.

Source: http://travel.state.gov/wwc1.html, March 24, 2003.

Clearly, the government of the United States anticipates further acts of terror against American citizens. Virtually all of the governments of Western European nations have issued similar warnings to their own citizens. It is only a matter of time before another such attack shocks the conscience of the world. In the meantime, what can you do? As a company or an individual you must immediately prepare to face the security challenges of the post 9/11 world. You can effectively lower your risk of being attacked by increasing security measures (physical, technical, and procedural). By limiting access to your facility or home, you reduce your vulnerability to any type of attack and therefore make an attacker realize that an action against you is not likely to be successful. The less vulnerable we are, the less attractive we are to any criminal or terrorist planning an attack. The following chapters will teach readers how to be less vulnerable.

NOTES

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