Mnemonics for 1600 Chinese characters "epub" - Melanie Schmidt - E-Book

Mnemonics for 1600 Chinese characters "epub" E-Book

Melanie Schmidt

2,2
16,99 €

Beschreibung

This volume offers a collection of over 1600 mnemonics for Chinese simplified characters - ideal for autodidactic learners, high schools, colleges, universities and private language institutes. The way of making Chinese characters easy to memorize is here to divide them into smaller components that have already a meaning of their own. These components are combined into short one-phrase-stories that can be easily remembered and provide a fascinating impression of the pictorial language of Chinese characters. For more interactive exercises of Chinese characters please visit www.mandarinstrokes.com. This ebook is available as an English, Spanish, French and German edition.

Das E-Book können Sie in Legimi-Apps oder einer beliebigen App lesen, die das folgende Format unterstützen:

EPUB
MOBI

Seitenzahl: 204




STICK - Mnemonics for 1600 Chinese characters (simplified)

Melanie Schmidt Ph.D. (ed.)

Illustrations:

Zhu Muyue, Chen Fangyi

Calligraphy:

Zhu Tao

Photographs:

Melanie Schmidt, Steve Merchant, Rita Lee

Book design by Mandarin Strokes Design

Editorial cooperation with:

Wang Xiaoling (Beijing International Studies University), Liu Xueling (Université de Paris XIII), Zhu Dongjie (Beijing Normal University), Liu Yingying (Zhong Shan University Guangzhou), Camilo Estrada Gonzales (TTT. Meridad)

A cordial Thank You for their committed support to Steve Merchant, Diana M. Tafurth Moreno and Patrick T. Walsh.

About the editor:

Dr. Melanie Schmidt studied Chemistry, Romance Studies and Sinology in the Universities of Siegen, Bonn, Köln, Tours and Paris. She worked as a foreign language researcher, lecturer and teacher in Germany, France, Argentina and the last five years in China. Besides scientific publications, she developed the internet site www.mandarinstrokes.com concentrated on the topic of writing Chinese characters as well as textbooks for profession related Chinese.

© Melanie Schmidt 2010. All rights reserved.

Published by Mandarin Strokes Ltd., 112-114 Des Voeux Road, Central, Hong Kong, 2010

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher.

1st edition

ISBN 978-988-19193-7-3 (ebook version)

ISBN 978-988-19193-3-5 (print version)

More titles on Chinese characters:

M-STROKES - The Stroke Order Dictionary for 3450 Chinese simplified characters,(illustrated print edition, ISBN 978-988-19193-1-1)

M-STROKES - The Exercise Book for 2000 Chinese simplified characters,(print edition, ISBN 978-988-19193-2-8)

Please visit for more mnemonics, interactive exercises and information about Chinese characters:

www.mandarinstrokes.com

Table of contents

Preface

Legend

Character components with multiple meanings

Abbreviations

Mnemonics

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   J   K   L   M   N   P   Q   R   S   T   W   X   Y   Z

preface

How can we make remembering Chinese characters easier?

One of the most frequently asked questions among Chinese learners...

This book offers a possible answer with a collection of over 1600 mnemonics for characters used in Chinese everyday life. Our method is to simplify the process of memorizing a character by dividing it into two or more smaller, less complicated components. Each of these components already has a meaning of its own so that you can combine their meanings to create a small story or phrase that is easily remembered. This associative procedure helps you to memorize a character not only for the moment but on a long term basis.

The mnemonics you find here result from an intensive dialogue between Chinese native speakers (students, teachers and lecturers of Chinese) and foreign Chinese learners working and studying in China from Beijing to Shenzhen and document their personal way of recognizing the meaning of a certain character. Consequently, their mnemonics offer a rich pictorial inventory and a fascinating insight into the Chinese language and cultural history. We took all efforts to preserve as much as possible the authenticity of the pictorial correlation between the characters and their inner components by a thorough choice of formulations. As every sinologist knows, it is generally problematic to view any Chinese character as a single entity, as the final meaning of a character can be determined only by its relationship to other characters (or by its "context"). Nonetheless, learning to write Chinese requires learning the form of each character individually. The major concern of this volume is therefore to facilitate this procedure as much as possible by using a visual approach.

This book is conceived as an ‘open book’. If further mnemonics for characters which are not yet part of this book or suggestions on how to improve existing ones come to your mind, please don’t hesitate to share them with more Chinese learners on our internet page: www.mandarinstrokes.com*.

Last formal comments:

- Most Chinese characters consist of a component that determines the character’s meaning and one part that influences its pronunciation but whose meaning isn’t generally taken into account. We have indicated the meaning of the pronunciation particle only when doing so helps with memorizing the corresponding character. Otherwise, such particles are only noted for sound.

- English and Spanish translations can occasionally vary, as translators took all efforts to highlight the pictorial potential of the mnemonics as adequately as possible by using idomatic expressions that vary significantly in each language.

- Throughout Chinese language history, the meaning and the shape of character components and radicals have changed. Because of this, we have chosen those meanings which are generally attributed to the current simplified form or commonly known traditional forms. To integrate the meanings from older forms would lead to unnecessary confusion for learners, especially beginners, of modern Chinese.

- In case pictorial components were interpreted in a very individual way, we attached the original signification as a footnote.

- Some character components possess multiple meanings. Please refer to their listing under the legend below.

- Throughout Chinese language history, the meaning and the shape of character components and radicals have changed. Because of this, we have chosen those meanings which are generally attributed to the current simplified form or commonly known traditional forms. To integrate the meanings from older forms would lead to unnecessary confusion for learners, especially beginners, of modern Chinese.

- English and Spanish translations can occasionally vary, as translators took all efforts to highlight the pictorial potential of the mnemonics as adequately as possible by using idiomatic expressions that vary significantly in each language.

Enjoy the pictorial world of Chinese characters!

______________________

*Please contact us: - by the contact form on our internet page (please insert as subject ‘mnemonic’) or - by our email-address: [email protected] (subject ‘mnemonic’)

Legend / Components

Characters or character components with multiple meanings - by stroke number

shí

ten - cross

dīng

man - small piece - nail

yòu

hand - again - ...as well as ...

- hill (particle stands on left side of the character) - city (particle stands on right side of the character) - ear (popular given meaning due to shape)

chí

orig.: to walk - popular meaning of today: two persons

silk - thread, rope

xuě

snout (of a pig) - snow - broom

cùn

short - inch

zhăng/cháng

to grow (zhăng) - long (cháng)

fēn

to divide - to distribute

yuán

Yuan (currency) - origin, the first

zhī

branch (of a tree or company) - support

sun - day

bèi

shell - money

shǎo/ shào

few (shǎo) - young (shào)

bāo

package - to surround - steambaked stuffed roll

gěn/ gèn

upright, franc (gěn) - hard, difficult (gèn)

xuán

sky - mysterious - black

head - page

to fit, to join, to suit - to gather - to close

xīn

spicy - hard, difficult

yǒu

Old Chin.: amphora - alcohol

just, beginning - young gentleman - garden

younger brother - to show respect to an elder brother

wǎn

crooked - gentle, soft

yuán

consequently, therefore - to change

宿

sù/xiǔ

to stay over night (sù) - classifier for nights (xiǔ)

to open up, to develop

Abbreviations

bot. - botanical

coll. - colloquial

fig. - figuratively

finan. - financial/finance

med. – medical/medicine

jur. - juridical

orig. - originally (in the sens of an old Chinese term)

act. - actually (for the actual, nowadays used term)

pron. - pronunciation

pron. of the trad. form - pronunciation of the traditional form

sb - somebody

simpl. - simplified

sth - something

var. - variation

zool. - zoological

A

A marriage:

a woman brought under a “safe roof”(in a closed sedan chair under a veil)

ān

宀 roof, house + 女 woman:

“It’s safe for a woman to be at home.”

to be safe, safety

ān

革 leather + 安 safe (ān) [pron.]:

“a safe seat on a horse made of leather”

a saddle

àn

安 safe (ān) [pron.] + 木 wood:

“confidential documents usually kept in a safe place like a wooden case”

a record, a juridical case

ǎo/niù

扌hand + 幼 young, child (yòu) [pron.]:

“a young child’s hands sometimes disobey”

disobedient, also: hard to pronounce (ào), obstinate (niù)

B

革 leather + 巴 legendary snake that can eat an elephant (bā) [pron.]:

“a leather plate with snakelike concentrical lines on it”

a target

bāi

手 hand + 分 to separate + 手 hand:

“to separate using your hands”

to break

bái

ˊ dot (here like a short ray of light) + 日 sun:

“When you look inside the sun, the light looks brilliant white.”

white

bǎi

木 tree + 白 white (bái) [pron.]:

“a kind of tree whose stem is painted in white to keep insects away”

a cypress

bān

扌hand + 反 in reverse (fǎn) [pron.]:

“to flip over with one’s hand”

to flip over

bān

分 to distribute, to separate (fēn) [pron.]+ 页 sheet, page:

“to distribute a certificate (a piece of paper)”

to grant an award

bàn

力 strength + 2丶dots (here: drops of sweat):

“to use great forces and sweat to carry sth out”

to do sth

bàn

亻 people + 半 half (bàn) [pron.]:

“the other half of someone”

partner, companion (of a couple)

bàn

扌 hand (to do) + 半 half (or a pictogramm of a whisk) (bàn) [pron.]:

“to mix half a liter of milk and half a kilo of flour”

to stir

bàng

虫 insect + 丰 plentiful (fēng) [pron.]:

“an animal with plenty of meat”

a clam (e.g. zool. panopea generosa)

© Mandarin Strokes Editions

bàng

亻person + 旁 side (páng) [pron.]:

“a person standing by the side of another”

next to, besides, close

bàng

讠word + 旁 side (páng) [pron.]:

“to use words to defame the bad side of a person”

to slander

báo

雨 rain + 包 package (bāo) [pron.]:

“rain falling down in small ‘packages’ ”

hail

bǎo

饣 to eat + 包 steamed bun (bāo) [pron.]:

“Eat some steamed bun and you will be full.”

to be full, satisfied

© Mandarin Strokes Editions

bǎo

宀 house + 玉 jade:

“a safe place (’a house’) for storing valuables like jade”

a safe, a treasure

bǎo

亻 person + 呆 naive:

“Someone naive sometimes needs to be protected.”

to protect

bǎo

保 to protect (bǎo) [pron.] + 土 soil, earth:

“a fortified place surrounded by protective walls made from soil”

a fort

bào

扌 hand + 包 package (bāo) [pron.]:

“to hold a human package in one’s hands”

to hug

bào

火 fire + 暴 violent force:

“a sudden burst of fire or noise”

to explode

bēi

非 not (fēi) [pron.] + 心 heart:

“to feel not happy in your heart”

to be sad

bèi

A pictogram:

“two legs under a roof”

a shell(fish), in ancient times: shell coin

bèi

衤clothes + 皮 skin (pí) [pron.]:

“a cloth on your bed that is covering you like a second skin”

a bed cover, a quilt

bèi

备 to prepare (bèi) [pron.] + 心 heart:

“to be tired by too much ‘preparing’ in one’s heart”

to be tired

běn

木 tree + 一 one:

“a product, that you can make just out of one tree”

a book (volume), a notebook

bēng

山 mountain + 朋 friend (péng) [pron.]:

“A non-athletic friend might collapse after having climbed a mountain.”

to fall in, to collapse, to die

bèng

石 stone + 水 water:

“a tool which can bring water out of a stone well shaft”

a pump

bèng

足 foot + 山 mountain + 朋 friend (崩 bēng) [pron.]:

“to jump with a friend with one’s feet from a mountain”

to jump

彳two persons + 皮 skin (pí) [pron.]:

“two men presenting their ‘skin’ to each other”

each other, mutually

竹 bamboo + 毛 hair:

“a writing tool made of bamboo and hair”

(today) a pen

门 door + 才 talent:

“A person with talent too often closes his doors to stay inside.”

to close

氵water + 必 to have to, must (bì) [pron.]:

“To purify alcohol, water must be separated.”

to secrete, to distill (only with pron. “mì”)

王 king + 白 white (bái > bì) [pron.] + 石 stone:

“The king of the stones is not white, but green jade.”

jade, green (color)

辟 to open up (pì) [pron.] (pì) [pron.] + 土 soil:

“a wall made of soil that opens up a way into a house”

a wall, as well: a cliff

辟 to open up (pì) [pron.] + 辶 to walk:

“to look for an open way to walk out to avoid trouble”

to avoid

辟 to open up (pì) [pron.] + 玉 jade:

In ancient times: “a round piece of jade with an opening in the center”

a round plate of jade

biān

虫 insect + 扁 flat (biǎn) [pron.]:

“an animal with a large flat surface”

a bat

biān

革 leather + 便 handy (biàn) [pron.]:

“a handy object with a long string of leather”

a lash, a whip

biǎn

贝 money/shell coin + 乏 to lack of (fá) [pron.]:

“A lack of money often means to be degraded.”

to degrade

biǎn

匸 box + 扁 flat (biǎn) [pron.]:

“a flat ‘box’ with an inscription on top”

a wooden tablet with an inscription

biàn

辛 difficult, also spicy (biàn) [pron.] + 心 heart + 辛 spicy, difficult:

“To differenciate between good and bad in your heart is sometimes difficult.”

to differentiate, to distinguish

biàn

辛 spicy, also difficult (biàn) [pron.] + 讠speak + 辛 spicy, difficult:

“to speak in a hot and spicy manner”

to debate

biāo

木 wood + 示 to present, to show:

“You generally present only your best piece of wood as a sample.”

a sample, example

biāo

虎 tiger + 彡 hair:

“A hairy man is supposed to be as strong as a tiger.”

to be strong

biē

敝 oneself (bì) [pron.] + 鱼 fish:

“a kind of ‘fish’ disguised under its own shell”

a river turtle

biē

敝 oneself (bì) [pron.] + 心 heart:

“to keep something in one’s heart”

to hold back one´s breath

bīn

宀 house + 兵 soldier (bīng) [pron.]:

“A soldier in your house is supposed to be your guest.”

a guest

bīng

冫“solid” water (in ancient times) + 水 water:

“solid water”

ice, freezing cold

bīng

丘 hill + 八 eight:

“a person who is the guard of eight hills”

a soldier

bǐng/ píng

尸 body (here: the shape of the character looks similar to a screen) + 并 to combine, to annex (bìng) [pron.]:

“a screen annexed to a projector that will show a breathtaking movie”

to hold back your breath (bǐng), a screen (píng)

扌hand + 发 hair (fà) [pron.]:

“to move the hair back with one’s hands”

to move one´s hair back, generally: to move sth slightly

氵water + 皮 skin (pí) [pron.]:

“the moving ‘skin’ of the water”

a wave

艹 grass + 氵water + 皮 peel, skin:

“a fruit with a lot of juice (water) under its peel and some grass on its top”

a pineapple

舟 ship + 白 white (bái) [pron.]:

“a ship, which is usually white”

an ocean liner

十 cross, all directions + 尃 to distribute, to disperse, to apply:

“To distribute your ‘concentrated richness’ in all directions means you have plenty to give.”

plentiful, rich

氵water + 勃 vigorous (bó) [pron.]:

“the vigorous way water moves in the ocean”

Abbr. for ‘Bohai Sea’ (Liaoning province), orig.: surge of water

扌hand + 尃 to distribute, to disperse, to apply:

“to distribute punches among your enemies”

to fight

艹 grass + 溥 extensive, broad (pǔ) [pron.]:

“a broad leaf of grass can still be very thin”

thin, fine

足 foot + 皮 skin:

“When the skin of a foot is injured, you have to hobble like someone who is lame.”

to limp, lame

扌hand + 甫 young man (polite form) (fǔ) [pron.]:

“To catch with your hand a handsome young man is a pleasure.”

to catch

© Mandarin Strokes Editions

口 mouth + 甫 young man (polite form) (fǔ) [pron.]:

“to put sth into a young man’s mouth”

to feed

A pictogram:

“The shortest and longest line in the lower part of the character look like two feet making steps, one in front and one behind.”

a step

忄heart + 布 cloth (bù) [pron.]:

“If you feel scared you have to ‘protect’ your heart under a piece of cloth.”

to be afraid, also: horrible

簿

竹 bamboo + 溥 extensive, broad (pǔ) [pron.]:

“A broad piece of bamboo gives enough space to write on it.”

a notebook (in old times made of bamboo)

C

cái

木 wood + 才 capacity, talent (cái) [pron.]:

“In ancient times wood was one of the most common materials due to its useful capacities.”

material (in general)

cái

贝 money + 才 capacity, talent (cái) [pron.]:

“With a lot of money and good capacities it is easy to become wealthy.”

fortune, wealth

cái

土 earth, soil + 衣 clothes + 戈 lance:

“to divide fabric with a lance to taylor clothing out of it”

to tailor, to cut

cǎi

目 eye + 采 to gather (cǎi) [pron.]:

“to ‘gather’ (to focus) both eyes on one object”

to pay attention to sth

cǎi

足 foot + 采 to gather (cǎi) [pron.]:

“to ‘gather’ your feet to trample on sth”

to step on, to tramble

cài

艹 plant + 采 to gather, to join (cǎi) [pron.]:

“several plants joined”

vegetables

cán

忄heart + 斩 to chop (zhǎn) [pron.]:

“When you do sth wrong, you feel as if someone chopped your heart.”

to feel ashamed

càn

火 fire + 山 mountain (shān) [pron.]:

“A fire near a mountain makes it look shiny.”

shiny

cāng

艹 grass + 仓 depot (cāng) [pron.]:

“Depositing a lot of grass together highlights its dark green colour.”

dark green

cāng

舟 ship + 仓 depot (cāng) [pron.]:

“a small ‘depot’ on a ship”

a cabin (only for ships)

cāo

扌hand + 喿 noise, chirping of birds (3 mouths on a tree) (zào) [pron.]:

“to train to conduct 3 mouths on a tree”

to exercise, to train oneself

cǎo

艹 grass + 日 sun + 十 cross, all directions (zǎo) [pron. of 早]:

“Grass is a plant that is growing in all directions under the sun.”

grass

氵water + 贝 shell +刂 knife:

“to measure the depth of water to reach a shell, you can use your knife’s length”

to measure, to examine

céng

尸 body + 云 cloud:

“a part of the body of a skyscraper that almost touches the clouds”

a floor

chā

木 tree + 叉 fork (chā) [pron.]:

“stems or fork-like looking branches of a tree”

branch

chā

扌 hand (to do) + 臿 pestle of a mortar (chā) [pron.]:

“You have to put a pestle into a mortar to grind sth.”

to put into, to insert

chá

艹 grass (leaves) + 人 person + 朩 tree:

“If a person takes leaves from a tree and boils them in water, the drink is called ‘tea’.”

tea

chá

木 wood + 旦 daybreak:

“At daybreak you have more light to investigate the woods.”

to check, to investigate

chá

石 stone + 查 to examine (chá) [pron.]:

“a piece of a (ancient) broken stone, that you want to examine”

a chipped edge

chǎ

衤 clothes + 叉 fork (chā) [pron.]:

“It is easier to walk in a narrow dress, if there is a fork-like opening in it.”

a slit (e.g. of a piece of clothing)

chà

分 to divide + 山 mountain:

“a road, that is splitting a mountain”

a bifurcation

chāi

扌 hand + 斥 to exclude (chì) [pron.]:

“to exclude sth by hand”

to open/to separate with force, to take apart

chái

此 here/this one (cǐ) [pron.] + 木 tree:

“We can use this tree here for making fire.”

firewood

chān

扌hand + 参 to join (cān) [pron.]:

“to rub sth with your hands and to mix it by this way”

to mix

chán

饣food + (免+ 丶丶) cunning (chán) [pron. of trad. form 毚]:

“to be cunning about finding good food”

greedy, gluttonous

chán

纟silk + 厘 deposit (chán) [pron. of the trad. form 廛]:

“Silk stored in a deposit can be used for wrapping.”

to wrap, to wind, to attach

chǎn

六 six + 厂 factory:

“To make at least 6 products in a factory means ‘to produce’ sth.”

to produce

chǎn

钅metal + 产 to produce (chǎn) [pron.]:

“a metal object that helps to ‘produce’ a building”

a shovel

chǎn

门 door + 单 individual, single (dān​) [pron.]:

“to open a ‘door’ individually for a single person”

to explain, to clarify sth to sb

chāng

犭 dog + 昌 to flourish, here like a pictogram of ‘two big wild eyes’ (chāng) [pron.]:

“a dog with two big wild eyes”

to be mad, wild

cháng/chǎng

土 earth + right side component of 扬* to expand, sun:

“an expanded area of earth”

a big square, a place to gather

 

 

*yáng [pron. of trad. form 昜]

© Mandarin Strokes Editions

cháng

尚 fashion (shàng) [pron.] + 巾 scarf:

“When a scarf comes into fashion, it means that it is often and regularly used.”

often, regular, common

cháng

亻person + 尝 experience (cháng) [pron.]:

“to give sth (experience, money, etc.) back to someone”

to repay, to recompense

chǎng

A pictogram:

“a house without inner walls”

a factory

chàng

申 to extend + right side component of 扬* sun, to expand:

“to be able to express yourself and to expand like sun rays”

smooth, free (lit.)

 

 

*yáng [pron. of trad. form 昜]

 

chàng

亻person + 昌 to flourish (chāng) [pron.]:

“to make a person ‘flourish’ ”

to support, promote

chāo

扌hand + 少 little, few, young (shǎo) [pron.]:

“It is tempting for a little student’s hand to copy some homework”

to copy

cháo

巛* here: three birds’ beaks + 田 field + 木 tree:

“three birds on a tree in a nest made of straw from a field”

a birds’ nest

 

 

*Orig.: radical for ‘river’

 

cháo

口 mouth + 朝 to face (cháo) [pron.]:

“to face your mouth to someone to laugh at him, to tease him”

to laugh at sb, to tease, to mock

cháo

氵water + 朝 towards sth (cháo) [pron.]:

“Water is flowing towards the beach and back again.”

the tide (ebb and flow)

chǎo

火 fire + 少 little, few (shǎo) [pron.]:

“to pan-fry sth on little fire”

to fry

chè

彳 two persons + 切 to cut:

“the way two persons remove sth thoroughly”

complete, thorough

chén

小 small + 土 soil:

“small grains of soil”

dust

chén

氵water + 冗 superfluous, redundant:

“It is a superfluous act that a heavy cow sinks down into deep water.”

heavy, to sink

chèn

衤clothes + 寸 very short, inch (cùn) [pron.]:

“short clothes”

underwear

chēng

禾 crops + 尔 you (polite form) (chēng) [pron. of trad. form 爯 ]:

“If you need some crops to be weighed, call me.”

to call, also: to weigh

chēng

扌hand + 掌 palm (zhǎng) [pron.]:

“to use a hand or palm for support”

to support, to prop up (e.g. your chin on your fist)

chéng

讠to say + 成 to accomplish (chéng) [pron.]:

“to accomplish a mission in accordance to what was said ”

honest, sincere

chéng

土 soil + 成 to accomplish successfully (chéng) [pron.]:

“A town with an earthen city wall is a successfully completed city.”

city, also: city wall

chéng

成 to accomplish successfully (chéng) [pron.] + 皿 dish, vessel:

“to accomplish to charge a vessel”

to fill

chéng

禾 crops (in general: sth that grows) + 呈 to show (chéng) [pron.]:

“sth that shows the process of growth”

procedure, program, rules

chéng

氵water + 登 to climb up (dēng) [pron.]:

“When one climbs up from the depth of a muddy river, the water becomes clear and transparent.”

to clear up, to make transparent

chī

口 mouth + 乞 to beg (qǐ) [pron.]:

“If a mouth begs for food, it wants to eat sth.”

to eat

chī

疒 sickness + 知 to know (zhī) [pron.]: